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Full text of "Word-building. Fifty lessons, combining Latin, Greek, and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes, and suffixes, into about fifty-five hundred common derivative words in English, with a brief history of the English language"

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IN. I I I.I - 

HEED'S I. VTI ^ I. \M,T \<;K WMKK. 



RKH- \ K i.i '- I IK, in i: 1 .1 .\- IN INCI.IMI. 




Hi i i .....- I:IHT..IU . 

KELUK3'8 I.N..I I^M I. n Hi VI i 

K *| BDmOMI OVSli VKKSIM \it '- 

Till IN, 

YltlUIIT, 1898, BT 


<>f I .1 I.Ktlr * CO. 

Ptaoe. New York 


THE Latin derivatives in English exist in families, that 
which ^unites the members of each family being the root out 
of which they grow. This root deeply colors the meaning 
of the derivatives, and largely determines their use. The 
prefixes and suffixes combining with the roots in the several 
families are much the same, so that the Latin element in our 
vocabulary is open to easy study ; the words composing it are 
readily classified, and even the classes have common dia: 

These derivatives should in some way be studied by the 
pupil. They are not the simple words to be learned with- 
out study, familiar to one's ear and tongue from child li 1. 

But one meets these derivatives everywhere as he emerges 
from childhood into youth. They sprinkle the pages of 
every book he reads, and they drop from the lips of all pub- 
lic speakers. The pupil must somehow make the acquaint- 
ance of these words, must learn to handle them himself. 

One of the cogent reasons for studying Latin is, that it 
helps the student to a knowledge of the Latin derivatives in 
English. But one does not study Latin solely or chiefly to 
learn its connection with English. The study of Latin in 
college is always with other aims. We hazard nothing in 
saying that one utterly ignorant of Latin and Greek would, 
by a judicious use of the lessons in this little book, learn 
more of the English derivatives from L:;tin and (ireek roots 

2 Preface. 

than from the ordinary college course in the classical lan- 

We ask attention, in these lessons, to 

(1) Tlu> original root-forms treated, and the forms into 
u hicii ti 1 ;>ncs have changed ; 

(;?) The simple (levk-e by which the roots and the prefixes 
in l>ii::ng with them are compactly grouped ; 

(:>) The separation, by different type, of root from prefix 
and sullix, and the separation of these from each other by 
the 4- siirn and the comma ; 

(4) The threefold work which we exact of the pupil : 

(5) The emphasis placed upon his finding the metaphori- 
cal meanings of derivatives ; 

( i i The models, remarks, and helps by which we guide him 
in his work ; 

(7) The suggestions to teachers to aid them in securing 
and retaining the interest of pupils ; 

(8) The fact that in forty-four lessons we lead the pupil to 
analyze and build up nearly fifty-five hundred words : and, 

(9) The further fact that by this work the pupil is enabled 
to comprehend, at a glance, almost any other deri vative word 
in the language. 

Had we supposed that the mere giving of lists of deriva- 
tives, with nothing to indicate root, prefix, or sullix, and with 
no directions to the pupil as to what he should do or how he 
should do it, was all the pupil needed, there would have been 
no call for another book on this important subject. 

The closing lessons of the book contain a brief history of 
the Knirlish language. 






I. The Meanings of Hoot and Stem. The word root is u>ed 
by philologists to denote the simplest and most primitive forms whirh 
words once had, or to which they can now IK- traced. In this sense 
of the word its rigidly scientific sense the word root names that 
monosyllabic form which is the origin and source of all verbal deriva- 
tives. But usage applies the word as well to later forms of i 
original and primitive words forms from which, by the u-e of pre- 
fixed and suffixed syllables, new words are produced nouns, adjec- 
tives, verbs, and adverbs. Respectable as is the authority for railing 
these "later forms " steins, what we regard as the prevailing u- 
leads us to choose roots instead. 

II. Definitions. A primitive word is one not derived from 
another word in (lie same language. 

A derivative word is one derived from another word ; as, nn- 
man/f/, man being the primitive word. 

A compound word is one composed of two or more simple \N 
as, forty-two. 

Prefixes and suffixes are, with rare exceptions, relies of words 
once independent, but now run down into mere formative elements. 
They are used, each with a meaning of its own, to modify the meao 

4 M < 

>t t<> which in i he derivative they are attached : though, 
when many of them arc used in the same \\ord, it i- >omet ime> diffi- 
cult to detect in the derivative tin- distinct tot06 of each. I'n: 

. and sutlixo follow it. In the following paragraph 
the illuM rative instance exhibits the r,...t jtnnt, the prefixes eon and 
ihesuffiv-/ and ///.and the six derivative word- formed 

mbination of the root with these prefixes and snfli 

III. i:.rj>f<f nation. T\w work i.elow. compacted fur the sake ,.f 
I'l-evity, needs explanation. If, a- i- u-ual, two ur moiv prefixes 
are to be united in succession \\ith the following root, or with this 
and the suffix after it. thoe prcfixo stand unconnected \\ith each 
other l>y the 4- si-rn. If any two of llu-sr aiv to he taken together 
and treated a^ a single prefix, these two arc grouped l>y the -i- siuii. 
The sutlix immediately following the i-oot is to lie united with it. 
in its combination \vitli each prefix or <rroup of ju-elixes. If other 
suffixes follow, the same tiling is to l>e done with these singly or 
in groups, the single suffixes or the groups l.eiim- x-parated from 
each other by an or in Roman type. The suffix, or the group lakeii 
as one. between the first or and the second, is to enter into the -ame 
combination or combinations as did the first suffix. And so i^ the 
suflix or the group between the second or and the third, etc., and 
that which follows the last or. For instance, if uiidcrjuncf we had 

dit+Junct+ion, or ive, or ive + ly, this would mean that the 
pupil had to do as directed with con+junct + ion. 

. cou+junct + ive, dis+junct + ive, con+jutn-1 //, 

Junct + ive+ty ; or, dropping signs and the black letters, with the 
wurds oiiijuiK-tion, <I injunction, conjunctive, di*functive t coiyiinctively, 

IV. The Roots and their Order. Most of the roots in the 
Regents' lists are Latin, and are found usually in the Latin verb. We 

first the root or roots found in the verb. These stand in the 
infinitiveof the v^erb and the perfect participle. That in the perfect par- 
ticiple ends usually in at or it or t 9 and of course denote- the act, 
expressed by the verb, as completed. The future participle root end- 
ing in ur follows, if any English words derived from it are to be 
icd in the paragraph succeeding. The roots which follo\\ in 
parentheses are mostly those into which the roots just spoken of have 
changed in their long sojourn in the Fn-neh language and in 

Introduction. 5 

If the roots in the Regents' lists are from Latin nouns or m 
all that we need to say here is, that the roots in parentheses arc modified 
forms of those which precede them. 

V. The Meanings of the Root* and of English tt'ords 
derived from them. It is easy to ascertain the m>anii:. 

root found in the infinitive and of that found in tin- j pic. 

These meanings are given or implied in the definition of t! 
infinitive which follows the roots them seltes. It isca>\ t>aseertain the 
meanings of the English words derived from the roots not in p;r 
thesis. It is not so easy to get at the >ignitication of the root 
parentheses, and that of the English word- derived from them. Often 
the etymological sense has faded out of the root : and the words, if 
metaphorical, do not always suggest the likeness on which the n 
phor is based. The pupil will sometimes need a hint from the teacher, 
sometimes he may profitably consult the dictionary. We ha\e thrown 
in liberally suggestions in parentheses and in Helps for the Pupil; 
but, where the pupil can seize upon the root idea, and, combining it with 
the meanings of the modifying prefixes and suffixes, can give the 
nification of the derivative, he should be allowed to do it. As well 
do his physical exercise for him as relieve him of the intellect ual 
labor which he can do alone. The main worth of this work con- 
sists in the exercise, which it compels, of the pupil's judgment. 

VI. The Lessons. The length of the Lessons assigned has 
been determined by the hope that all the work called for by u> can 
be done. But those teachers able to take up only the root -forms 
selected by the Regents can perhaps run two or three of our Lessons 
into one. The root-forms they seek are easily found. They are 
marked by the asterisk, and are usually the first or the >eend treated 
by us in the several paragraphs. 

VII. Direction. The roots are printed in black letters, t!, 

and suffixes in italics. The prefixes and suffixes are given and defined 
on the pages immediately following these Lessons under Klemnr 
English." Find there the meanings of the prefixo and sullixe- D 
below, find in the Lessons the meanings of the roots with which these 
prefixes and suffixes combine, and then give the signification of the 
derivatives formed by the combination. Frame phra<es or >entences 
containing these derivatives properly used. Do not look for the mean- 
ings of letters within marks of parenthesis and unitaliri. 


Note the changes, if any. which metaphor has wrought in the mean- 
g| of words. Tin 1 literal meaning of a word i- not always that which 
it really hears. From the likeness in position between the upper pan 
of one's body and the top of a nail, we lran>lVr the name of the one 
object to the other, and speak of the In ml of a nail. From the real or 
fancied resemblance in function between one's head and Washington 
city, we may carry aver capvt, the Latin name of ih,. head, .-MM!, Div- 
ing it to the city, call Washington the capital of the Tnited States. 

. We indicate here the way in which the work required in 
this Direction ma\ lc done. The roots we take are I-*r<tnf/, 
/Yffr/.and r*r(tcfitr.\.r^nu IX. Turning to the end of ihe>- 
LtMOIUJ in " Flemeiitary F.nirlish." for the prefixes and siitti\-. 
we combine their meanings, found there, with the incaniiii: of the 
roots in Lesson IX.. give the signification of the derivative-, 
grouped in that Lesson, and illustrate their i. 


Frangible, capable of being broken a clay pipe-stem is frangible; 

ibility. state of being frangible, name of the abstract (juality 
the frangilility of a pipe-stem; 

, incapable of being easily broken oak is comparatively 

in/rrmgribility, state of being infrangible the infrangibility of the 

re/reeitgrible, capable of l>eing turned back, or out of a straight conr-c 
a ray of light is refrangible; 

re/Vfi/*//ibility, "state of being refraniriblt the refraniribilily of 

fragment, a ])iece broken off a fragment of a tea-cup: 

/ragrmentary, belonging to a fragment, in fragments a fragnieptary 

report of the speech ; 
suffrage (a probable explanation iriven in Lesson IX.) : 

Introduction. 7 

incapable of being easily broken down A ,. nt 

was irrefragable, irrefutable, a metaphorical u<- of H,. 

irrc/V<7yal>ly. in an irrefragable manner- he invfrairably established 
his point in the debate; 

infringe, to break into one's rights an- infringed by tin- fhi 

act of infringing the infringement of n,,. tnaty, 

metaphorical use of tlie word, tfnce a In-aly cannot literally su 
a breaking into; 

fraction, state of being broken, a part t lie Tract ion of an hour; 
/Vacfional, belonging to a fraction fractional currency; 
fractions, not integers, or whole numbers i and ,', are t'r;i<-ti 
infract, to break to infract is to encroach upon; 

, to bend sharply back water refracts the light ; 

infraction, the breaking the infraction of the rules, a metaphorical 
use of the word ; 

refraction, the bending sharply back, half breaking the refraction 
of light from the oar-blade in the water; 

refractory, bent away from the proper or natural course the refrac- 
tory or stubborn child, a metaphorical use of the word: 

refractoriness, state of being refractory the refractoriness of his 
child is a grief to the father ; 

fracture, a break there is a fracture in the plate: 
fragile, capable of being broken fragile plaything: 
fragility, state of being fragile the fragility of icicl- 

frail, capable of being broken down. weak, feehh frail health ..r 
constitution, metaphorical; 

frailty and frailness, state of being frail frailty of character, of 

the intellect. 


To the Teacher. Tli is work <>f word-building may be difficult and 
sl>\\ at first. But it will rapidly become ca-y. Tin- MOM pn -liv- and 
suffixes are constantly reappearing:. The pupil will soon become 
familiar with their meanings, and ready in combining' them \\ith the 
meaning of the root. If necessary, the opening lessons may be 

To the Pupil. You will find the Model preceding this Lenon 
helpful to yon. Following that, your work of building up words and 
illustrating their use would begin and proceed thus : cut, one wh 
root ag, to do, make (tt/tnt=one who does, e.g., the agent of the firm; 
/. state of being, function, + root ay, make <///'//'// state or func- 
tion of an agent, e.g., sold through his agency, or instrumentality: /A, 
capable of. + ay, to move, or moving, make agile quick, nimble, 
t .//.. the agile squirrel; ily, state of being + agile= quick ness of move- 
ment, v.g.i the agility of the squirrel. 

The prefixes, suffixes, and their meanings are to be foun 
have been told, at the end of these Lessons in " Elementary Kngli>h."* 

Ag,* Act, (ig, g, actu), from ag e re, ac tus, to do, move, 
urge on , put in motion, drive. 

Aff + ent or ency or He or il\ + ity ; man (see this root, 

* Roots thus marked are those given in the Regents' frjllulmx for the 
present year. 

t The suffixes able, cibile, ance, ate, bule, cule, ence, ibi/r. /////-. //. . ///< 
t'ze, le, ose, tude, and ure often drop the final c, and become ,//>/, 
one, at, bul, cul, enc, iUl, ibl, U, in, iv, iz, I, ox, 1u<L and ///. 
Abh. nUl, el, er, ery, ibl. if//. ///. or. and tu<1c sometime^ drop the 
initial letter, and appear as bh>, bil, I, r, ry, bl, ty, y, r. ami 1Mb. 
Ar\j, ly, mony, ory, and y sometimes change y to i. and a; 
an, . ori, and i. 

Elementary English. 

Lesson XIII.) + ag + er or (e) ; man + ag(v) + able or ///< /// ; 
ig + ent or ency; 1 nav (see the root, Lesson XVI.) 

or able + ness ; prod + iy + al <>r tt/+ify;* c*nb + 
* or (\\)ity ; co( = cnm)+0 + nt/ .r fl irf; 

iveor ive + ly* or iv-ftVy or ion or i<> or 

; counter, en, ex, over, re, re + ni. //<///> - </</ . 
/v, trans + act + ion ; en + act -I- /////// ; ge ^/r/ pf< 
tn + al or al + ly or 7 * tVy. 

From navigdre, naviy</ />/*, derived from ' iome 

or or t'o^ or (e) ; rircum + nav+igat+or or 
or (c). From the frequentative f ^// / ///' //. ^/// / ///' / 
derived from ^//ryv, come agitat + or <-r /o// or (e) : r/y-h 
gitiit -\-iun or (e). 8 From ac tit a re, art it it In*. d- rived 
from (ftjfre, come actttat -\- ion or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. We do not in tlirse Helps doi'm.', hut 
attempt to point to the paths which may lead to definitions. ' , 
igency, something urging instant action. - I'rodli/d/i/'/. ,-tn MIJ 
into wasteful extravagance. * Ambiguous, uncertain note thr 1 
of ambi. 4 Cogency, the compelling force of the thought. The 5 / 
A.-S. actively is a hybrid, its parts are from different languages. 
6 Cogitate, to think, involving intellectual activity. 

Alt,* from al tus, high, lofty, 

Alt + ar (raised); a1t(\)hnlr. 

From the derivative ex al td re, ex al td tus, to raise, conic 
ex + alt ; ex -f alt -f cd ; ex -f alta t + ion . 

Anim,* from animus, mind, intolloct, fooling, spirit, 

(see this root, Lesson \l.) + ttniin -f //// : nt<r</n 
the root, Lesson XIII.) 4- anint -\-ous or iff/; itn (see r< 

f A frequentative cxpn >ses a repetition, or an increase, of tin- 
denoted by the primiti\-. 



L ------ !i \\1Y.) tntiin : "//.vnr //// ; />//>/// (////\/////x, small, 

mean) + a Hi HI. + cm* or <ws + fy or ?'/# ; r/ u / * 4- os -f //// ; ' 
tiHint r(t(/ (the prefix) -f r<Tt (to turn) : tiniin +(/(/ + rrrs 
-ftow;* the true </;///+ (us) (L.) if llie all'air. 

Helps fcr the Pupil. ! Aniumsit,^ tin- fHn<j bosiil. 
version, the mind turned in crii i.-i-in upon its object : i> this meta- 


Remark. If the pupil is iv<iuiiv<l to write out any part of his work. 
some form like this may IM- a<l<ptc<l t he aecemrj work witli tin- 
parts of 1 1 10 word, outlined aUae, not l.eini: here ><! down: 


Lm.Ku. Mi \\i\i,. 

ll,U>Ti; \ TinN 01 


To do * tin th ing by the }i<tn<L 

The flriirr manages his horses. 

Tin- xfn nki / manages his r< 
( Metaphorical^ N////T fin imrk 

is not doni- by the hum!, hut 
by the organs of speech . ) 

If the pupil should brini: in as an illustration. The fmrht r mat 

//"////*. he could perhaps see that this use of //numi/i i-<till nnn- 
metaphorical, since tlie work is done by nothing physical, luit l>y 
authority or personal influence. 

Ann,* Aimi, Alum, (enni, en), from an ;///>, a jear. 

.titn + al+ist oral+s; 1 anni + vers + ary ; * II, wtit 
tj Lesson I\'.), tri, sept (seven). ////// (millr. thousaiul ). 
per -f enni -f al ; super -f annu + at + ed or at -f \ 

Elementary English. 11 

From an nu A Us, yearly, come annu -\ ] + ly or 

Helps for the Pupil. . a relation of theetVnUof theywr. 

- Anni'r, r*,ir,/. tin- intiuinl nfurn of tin- day \\hidi < omm<-inorates 
some i-vent. 

Apt *, (att, ept), from ap fas, fit or fitted, UK* p. p. 
vb., w/> e re, to fasten, join together. 

or Mfxx ; in \ <ti>t ; (fjrf(\) / //,/, ; </ . 
(in)-f /,iv ; ^^/,' i/i-^c/tt. 

the t'rc(|Hciitativf adapt* \daptdtu*) to tit. 
come ittl+ai>t : a<l + airt f ^///r or abil+ihi : ml f <//>/<// 

Helps for the Pupil. > ^dep/, one -sA///r</ in >min-tling ; 

x , (fo<fs,s), from 6as, or &^8 sws, low, humble. 

(e) + 1t/ or >^ss or ment ; , 
rfe + bas(u) -f ///^y/ / ; frass. ' 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Bass what part in music? 
Brev *, (brief), from 6r vis, short. 

or ^ ; ! brev(\)+ary; ' brh-f (adj.); brief 
a lawyer's) ; brief -{-h \ 
From <il> l>rc ri it r<\ <il> l>r<' rl <i hi*. derived from /// 
come al + breviat + ion or (e) ; (t + bri<lf/ + ?nrH/ or er <>r (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' 7?mv/, applied to a <-mmi to an 

<.!li. -cr of higher rank than that for \vhii-h lu> nvrivrs pay. - / 
, a book of the ('hureli. not the missal. 

cay, eh,ca$H).f\'um <-dd ere, 
to fall out, to perish, to luppeii. 

Cad+ence; 1 de + cad + curc or 
Of wrt 1 or ent+al or riit + al + lij : <>< f //// - ' ' orenf + a?; 
or MMM or (e) : <t< t + rid + (u)<///.s- ; ' 


tti ; ch + ance;' ////*. per * <// | ance. Ca*(e) ; 

4- "/ or /M -f / -f /# ; casti -f tfZ or a/ 4- /// or <// 4- /// 
<>r />7 "or />7 -}- ic + al or /*/ -f ///. 

Helps for the Pupil. Add the meaning of al to that of incident, 
taken as a whole, and the meaning of /// to tncidrnful. taken us a 
whole. In general, take tin- more simple combinations fust, and use 
these as wholes in defining other derivatives. l Cadence, u-< d ,,f t} u . 
voice only. - Incidence, a falling on or wjoon, as of one line upon 
another. * Jncidcnt, an (x-rurrrnce. 4 Occident the sun apparently 
/<r///x down when-'/ '" 1 >< dlmmx applied to what tn-es, and \\liy? 
c ( 'hance, a h<ti>i ning. 7 An occasion falls out or happens. ' ( 'asute, 
Aie skilled in cases or questions of conduct <//-. ir. i*t. and ism are 
the common Gk. suffixes. 


To the Teacher. The meaning of some prefixes stein-; almost to 
have faded out of them in certain combinations. To detect the force 
of de and re, for instance, in deceive and receirr. below, is a task too 
subtile for the pupil. Allow him to give the proper meanings of such 
words (they are few) as wholes, without a hunt for the separate mean- 
ing of each element. 

Cap, Capt,* Captur, (cip, ceiv, cept, ceipt, ceit), from 
cap e re, cap tus, to'take, seize, hold. 

Cap + able or a bil + ify or acious or ac + ity or aciovs + 
or ac -f it 1 4- ate ; in 4- cap 4- Me or ac 4- ity or (tc 4- // 4- 
: ftrin (=prim, see root, Lesson X X I . ) + cijt 4- nl ' or h* 
oTdl+ify or al + ly ; muni (see root, Lesson XVI.) -j -dp 
4- al or al 4- ity ; 4 parti (see root, Lesson X V I II. ) 4- cip 4- le 6 
or(i)<7/; hi + dp + (\)ent or (\)ent + ly or (i)ence;* 
(i)ent or (e) ; con, de, per, re + ceiv + er or (Me or (e). 
4- ive or iv 4- fYy or it; 4- a^ or it; + at 4- t'wr/ or or or (fy ftfs 1 ex > 
inter, pre + c<-pt ; He, ex, per, 1 rr + cept + ion ; </<', per, 
pre } rp, sus 4- cept 4- ive ; ex 4- cept -f- ion + al or ion -f tf/>/e or 


Or ; sits -f cept -h Me or ibil -f- //// ; />/v f- fv;>f -f w or r + e** ; 
rt' +c<'ii>t ; run, <h> \ccit. Ctijttu r(e). 

From an tic i pa re (anti for /////r), an / and 

par tic ipd re, /mrticipd ///*, derivatives of capere, come 
f r/y>f// -h /o// or ory or (e) ; imrti +cij> + nnt : /><irti -f 
inn or (e). From emancipdre^ < cipdtu*, 
of capere, come e + man (see root, Lc^x.n Mil.) 
o?i or or or (e). From oc cu pa re, <> 
derivative of rape re, come oc + cup + y or (i)< / or an/oi 
or + <-9tiMit + inn. From the frequentativr accept A 
ceptdtus, come ac + cept; ac+cept+abU or <////r v / 
or r/- ; r/ 

Helps for the Pupil. ' //, a TJ. n. st-ni cndiiiLr. /'/////////. ' 
in importance. 3 A///r//y/r, thai, which is fnntluunufnl, from \shich 
something pr<ici-cls. ' Mn/n'ri/itilfti/. originally, not no\\. a town 
ceiving the rights of Hoinaii c itixcnship while retaining iN own laws. 
6 Participle, a word partaking of two natures. * Incipience, a /"/, 
hold of at the b<><jinning. "' /V/rr/>///>/i. the r/c/ of taking. r 
taken, through the senses into the mind. 

Cam *, (carni, charn, car), from cd ro, car His. flesh. 

Carn + al l or al + ly or al + ity or ^ J ; r//nii f rfi/ a (im- 
perative va/e, he strong; hence used in farewells) ; cttrni- 
-f vor (to eat) 4- o?/x ; charn + el ;* rar( r) 4- /ow. 

From car nd ti o, fleshiness, comes 4 <'<u-n<it -f ion. From 
the derivative in car nd re, in car nd tus, come in -f carnal 
-{1071 st or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. l Carnal, fleshly ; how comes the incanini: 
sensual, sinful V (.\irniml. a fcxtinil just before Lmt. and 
cording to Webster (but not Skeat). " a farewell to 11. 
houses are houses for the dead vaults and sepulchcr nation, 

flesh color. 6 Incarnation, putting into a body. 



Ced,* Ce, (ceerf, ccas . from < t<I e re, etas us, to gro, yield, 
give up. 

t </(e) ; ' ' . inter, pre, re, se + ced(e) ; pre + cc<l + 

>r Mice or '//'//; ttn+pre + ced + enl -\-<'<l ; j>ru + ce<l + 
: Huh +<<<! + e/it or att + lij mence ; ex, pro, sue ^ t ; 
pro+eeed+ing or 5. J /;>-," r/r, ##, ^ro, r#, ^e 8 4-ees/ 00, 
. 4 inter, pro, re, sc, *uc + ce88+ i<m ; inter. j>re + de, tuc 
-h cess 4- or ; con, ex, suc + cess 4- ice ; ac + cess + ///// < >r (>/// ; 
/// -f cess -f r//// ; t s//r -f cess +ful or //// 4- /// ; nn ( n{c) 4- 
crst( - cess) 4- or or r 4- al or r 4- y ; ceas(e) ; cea(e) 4- less or 

From the frequentative ces sd re, ces sd ///x, \\ 

Helps for the Pupil. ' CW/f a territory. 2 .4 /ASV/ .s-x. a (.llcction. in 
any tissue of the body, of pus withdrawn from other i i>sm->. >>/rres$, 
a following, a result ; now, only a favorable result. 4 Concession, a 
to a demand. 5 Decease, a going from life, death. 

Cent,* (centi), from <?f^/ //f />/, a 

Cent; cent + ur + y wur + ion 1 or enni+al OT en+ary 
or en + ari + an ; per 4- cent 4- ^e ; 2 centi +ped(e) (see root, 
Lesson XIX.) or grad(e) 3 (see root, Lesson X.) <r </r<nn.* 
or meter (see root, Lesson XXV.). 

Helps for the Pupil. J Centurion, a Roman captain of a hundred. 
2 Percentage, the rate per cen/ or on a hu/nlml. \ * (rntii/nuh 'ihrr- 
mometer. 4 Gram, the unit of weight in the metric system. 

Cingr,* Cinct, Cinctur, (shiny), from citt ye re, chief us, to 
irird, surround, enclose. 

Sur 4- ciny 4- fo ; ! shiny * + le + s. Pre? sue 4 4 r/ // r/ ; x // r 
+ cinct 4- ly or 

Efaneniary ///////?>//. 

Helps for the Pupil. i^irth for a horse. - 

an eruption I'/H-itr/iny the Imdy. 3 /W///r/. a district \\ithin certain 
bounds. 4 Siicrincf, \vithin narrow campa**. concise. 

Cliii,* (clen, cliv), from L. form of (ik. Mim-in, to IM ml, -lu 

Clin + ic or ze + Z or ic + *; 1 de + clen + sion ; ac? 
pro 4 + cHr 4- //#. 

From in di nd re, in rll m't ///>-, <! // mi r> . 
rec li nd re, rcc li nd tus, we get de, in, re-}- din \ . /// 

de, in -H7//mM ion : <l< - </ht<tfin 

Helps for the Pupil. In ' r//Wrx. the patient.- n <!<>'. In * accliv- 
Hi/, the tilo/n' is ascending.; in * deeftfofty, descending. 4 J'rodirify, a 

'/<// In wards. 


or,* Cord, Corcli, (cow), from coi*, coV r/ts, the heart. 

Oor(e) 1 cour + age;'* conr + aye + ous or age + onx + ly ; 
<lix, en H- coier + ^e or ^re -f ?>/ r>/ /. .40, CO-M, </z's 3 + corrf ; ac, 
-h corrf 4- ww^ or 7^ H- ly or /^e ; (ic + cord -f /'//// or 
; 4 re + cord;* re + cord + er or er + */ii/> : <<>/<//-}- 
6 or al -f Zy or Z + ity. 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Core, the heart of the fruit. * Courage, the' 

thought to be its seat. 3 Discord, the //^/// thought t. 
seat of feeling. * Accordingly^ in accord or agivi'inrni with. 6 AVrorrf, 
a truthful copy, in accord with tla- facts. * (.'ordiaL adj., fmui the 

; n., something cheering the heart. 

Cur,* Curat, (Mr), from CMC rdre, cu ra tiis, to care for, take 
care of, heal. 

: rit r + able; r//r(e) -f //.vx : / cnr(e) ; 

<?, IM + .VP 4- cwr(e) 4- /// : ^', /'// 4- >v 4 ri/r 4- //// ' 
4- !//((') : x4 ///'(e) + ///; ^/x + s, in -h>' + ur + ance or < 


-f a ft + .v + f/r(i'). Cunif -<>r or // or (e) ;* 

^\ in +ar + cur + acu. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Security, one / care because of 

safety. * Curate whose care or duly dors IK- take upon liiin-d!':-' 
*^lccMra/e correct because of what taken? 

Curr f * Curs, (curri, corri. cur, cor, court, mrs^ from 
re re, ctir sus, to run, move quickly. 

or r/iri/ 1 urt'tit + tt/; con. or -f cnrr\ - 
ctirri + culum ;* rorrf -h (dor) ; con. i/t. nr, rr + cur : 
ror;' couri + cr. Cttrn + ory or o // + ///; ^./-, in+ctir8 + 
ion; ex+cwrt+ion+istj ex + curs + ive or iw + ly 

;* pre + curs + or; cours(e) ; cours ~rr or /////. 

Helps for the Pupil. ] r///r ///// what circulati'x.' ' Curriculum, 

rae <>f study. :i SIHT<H\ to ///// under, or to the aid of. ' /v/ 
running from one thing to another. 

Diet,* (ditt), from die ere, diet us, to say, pronounce. 

^4df/ contra, e, inter, pre, ver (=verus, true) + <licf : tlict 

+ ion or ion + ary ; bene, contra, inter, juris' (from /'//>-, 

7'///-/s, justice), male, pre, val(o) (see Lesson III., under 

Cam) + rftcf + ^'o^ / contra, /<//(() 4- <//r-/ f "/// ; <//^ + (<>) 3 

From the frequentative <7/> /// /v, r//V- /// ///>-, we have /'// -f 
+ ment ; 4 <lictfif + ion or or or or-\-xhij> or o/- + (i)^/ or 
(i)^/-h/# or (e). From <li n't n>. </t <,//>/*. to proclaim, 
devote, consecrate, we have a, *fr, ///, />/v-M//v<//(r) : ^/>, 

Helps for the Pupil. l Addict. t<> </i-n,/c to. * Jitrixdictinn. >]>hriv 
or limits witliin wliich one may f//W///v or apply the law. " />///*;. i 
or aforesaid * Indictment, tin- *////'/////// in detail ol one's 'iT-ncc. 

Elementary I 17 

L>> n\ VI. 

,* (diyni, (l<'i</n< duiiit, d<tin>. from </!</ it us, worthy. 

or it + ttry; in \-<liyn -f- //// ; ntn ///<///: 
driyti ;- dtiiitt + y* or /-f/// or l + *6l 
dttin ; 4 </i -\-d<iin +fn/ or /W-f /// or /W . // 
!>< in /// '//// //// //. /// '//// //// ///>, <lrri\:iti\. i, we 

/// i r//r/// '"// or an/ ly : '< ,< </it/n<tf \ 

Helps for the Pupil. ' ('nmlitjn. xiiilitMt- t< tin* fault. 
think wnrthy. A 3 (Utility unrscl. 4 I)i*<lnin. not \n think 

Mi',* nui-l. if////.', f///r/*, ilttif), from f/// r/ /, . .//;/ -r//s. to 
load, to hriu tr forward. 

.I//, /v/y/, ^/r, r, /// . hth'n.jn'n. , ' ;/>/. -IH, 

frtf -f <(tt('(v) ; f///r f ^// or ^/ ; ' roy/ -f r/i/r -f //^ or 
co??, J0, e, re- + due 4- //Vr : <luk(c) : ' <////.-() -f- /A//// ; ////r/i + 
or //. J>urf:* durt-ri/r l or //+////; <// '. 
. /////// (tffjt/<f. \\atci-), r/(a) (road)-! r///r/ ; '///. 
, re+pro, se + duct + ion ; </> . ///. ///-o, *r-i-<turf + ivej 
con + duct + or or r-fdw; nm -\-duit. 

From r^/ // /<>; y/ , /v/ // r^' ///.v. dci'i vat i vc of ln,< ,-, . \\- have 
c + duwit + io/t or or or r// or /o// -fl or r>y// or r). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Dm-at. \\r-\ oinrd in tin- i/urfii/ of Apulia, 
and ln-arin.y: tin- \vonl tlnt-nlii*. ' />/>/.>. originally a /t<i<t>r in hnttlr. 
z Duct, n p<i- Ih/rfi/i-. capalih- <>f ln-in^ ,/ntn'n <ut. or 

6 Cnmlm't. a canal nnnhtrlinf/ water. 

i:|ii, (rr////i, from *r f/tius. equal, just. 

Kf/u + tt/ or /// -/:/ or oJ+ //// ; ^, nn+eqit + ttf : CO, i'n + 
<'f/u. + al +////; <'(/uim>.t' 1 (//"./. HOcHs^ ni-jln) 01 
or val -\-vnt* or rut + cmr or roc (see root, Lesson XXIV.) 

1^ I hW-/*V /////////. 

in tlu' dc'rivativr noun tf*c////A/x, if </t(i Id //>-. 
<-</n it ii <>r '////' nr ,//// i- // ; /// 4- /<///// -f // or an* <>r n//.v -\ ///. 
From tlu' (li-rivutivr verb r/- y//^' /r. </' <j . DOOM < </ua + 

ble or bil+ity; e + <jiutt + ion 4 or or* or ori + l : (t<L in 
+ (ttl+<'</u<tt((>) : (uL in --H/</-f <'<ju<it(v) f /// ; ^//, 
+ equ + cif. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Equinox, timo of ryj//// day ami 
niwi/r/it. oi' c</i'(t/ i-dluc. * Equivocal, douhtful. In j 

'////. to two or more intiTpn'tuhon*. In an ^-t/mtttiiH what an- 
? ''Equator what docs this lim- divide, and into wlial part- 


Fa,* Fat, (f,far], from fd-ri, fa tits, to spoak. 

Af+fa -f- &/0 ! or Z>// + ity or bl + y ; fa + ld<> 2 or bHJ+< 
f+fa + ble; in+f+ant* or flwr?/ or aut + ili' <>r 
inulti (see root, Lesson XVI.) +/V/r+(i)w/x; 4 

far IT (\)ous* or ious + l or 


or al + ism* or al+ist or al+ify; pre 

Helps for the Pupil. l A fable (the We of r///M. a-il\ *}><>k>,i (,,. 
2 .Fo&fe (the 6/e of bulum), that by \\lnch something is said or taught. 
8 Infant, one unable to speak. 4 Multifarious, liirrally. nt<ini/-jinik- 
iny, hence various. B Nefarious, contrary to what is divinely .x/W,-*//, 
hence wicked. * JVi/e, spoken by the gods or some power behind them 
hence fixed, unalterable. ''Fatal, unalterably destructive. 
, the doctrine that things are fated and so oecessarj . 

Fac, Fact,* Factor, (fie, fy, fttir, f<-<(t, feas, fash. 
featur, feUur), from facere,fdctns, lo do, to make. 

/v/r -tnhun J (ffns, every : ///// (^/'.v. ///'//.s-. art, 
.-kill), ht'ite., of ( = oj>. </>*. Jilility, lirlp. aid), sttt-ri 

'"// /. 

root. Lesson X \ 1. ) y/v (\)>f/ or (n 

-f //<;,/// or ence or (i)^/-// ; <// /"+ 

/ir (i)r/d or (i)fttri/ or (i )</// + /y ; y/v < 

or (\)c)tt + hj ; (/< -\ -y/v ' or (i)/ or (i) 

+ aciotW 01- ,////; (/'//, meaning to niak -uiMi. HA a 

suHix, in derivatives loo nimirrous to mention : as, inairn 
rari///, etc.) ; af+f<tir (V\\ a f<tlre, to bo done), /-v/r/ .- 
fact + or or ory or or + x/ti/t or t'o/i * or (! ./ + 

ur or /^// ; nnnnt (see root, Lesson M 1 1 . ) +/acf -f- 

im+per+fact+ion : de, cf + fwt + i re or i 

w; f'cuf:* <l<'+f<><tt ; frits {-ible 9 or //;//+/// . /">/i.-f 
/o/i 10 or i(m-|-aifo or ion + abl + y; counter, tur (=8tijt> 
for (furix, out of doors) +/>//. Mtniu ; jnHni- 
(e) ; f'<'fifttr(v) ; fur +f'<'ittt !(>). 

l-'rom the derivative adj. /</> // /x and noun /<w, 

/'^ ci7 i ^ ^'5, come fac + ile or //+ //// ; /'fii-u/t + y ; dif+ 
jiciilt : dif+flcult+y ; facilitate). From the frequenta- 
tive af fee tare, affectdtus, come a/, dis + af+ft'ct; 
f/ix -f (tf+fect + ion ; af y dis -f /", ^ y/ + ftf+j'* f+ 


Helps for the Pupil. * Factotum, a rfoer of everything. //;'/ 
cient, able of or ow^ o/ or from itscl!' t<> /////// ; n efect. 

* Deficit, what is wanting. * Fact, sonu'thini; rfon; hence = truth, as, 

t'acf. ^Faction, tliost- (/r/i// , r in o{|N>sitii>n t> t! 

6 Manufactory, the word remains, tlmu^h nutchin- k n 

the j.lacc <.f the /////id. 7 Infect, to taint l.y wm 

noxious. A 8 /a^, as of swiinniinir. * Feasible, that may Ac done. 

10 F(i*hin. the maA^ of a thing. n For/fit, that lost by some 

12 Affectation, an assumption, a trying i \s lat one ib 

Word- Building. 

LESSON \\\\. 

To the Teacher. The \\unls frequent ly u>ed should be 
.-elected if not all arc taken. All arc useful. -nine m<>re u>eful lh;n 

Fer,* L,at,* (^///), from f&rre, Id tus, to boar, carry. 

Cfofi, de, dij\ ///, /w/ ' (///./, ///m, light), "/, /;/>, 
( 9 re, suf, trans + f <' r ; circum. con, ///, <///', ///, 
re, fnnix+fcr + ence; sitf+fer + er or ance or /////; //// . /v . 
suf, tran*+fer + able; dif+ffr + cH/ orrHl + 1y; c<mi (<-u- 
, conc),Jlori (flos, floris, flower), fnu-ti (frnrfns, fruit), 
(pexiix, pest), voci (see root, Lesson \\\Y.)+fer-}- 
ous. Col, di, e, ob? prc, pro, 3 re, trans + lat(e) ; col, ob, 4 re, 
cor + re, trans + lat + ion ; di + lat -f ory * or ori + ness ;' u," 
il? re, cor + re, super + lat + ive ; de ( = di) + l!/. 

From the derivative fer ti Us come fert + ile 8 or il + ily or 
il + ize or il -f iz 4- er. 

Helps for the Pupil. * Lucifer, the Ught-bringer Venus as morn- 
ing star; by a strange interpretation of \>\\. \\\. \~, applit-*! to Satan. 
2 Oblate, pushed, or borne, out at the sides : *jiro/<t(r. at the jmlcs. 
4 Oblation offering. * Dilatory, deferred, delayed. * Ahlttfirf e,-i 
that denoting separation, beari/i</ away from. ~ I //afire, applied t> the 
process of reasoning or inferring. B Fertile, bearing rielily. 

Fid,* from fid e re, to trust. 

Con+fid + ent 1 or ant 3 or atf + lif or en re or o)f-{-(\)(tl 
or ent + (\)al + ly or (e) ; dif+fid-tcnt* or cnt + hi or /';/<r. 

From the derivative /A/ r //X fuithful, come^f/ + ^'/4- ////; 
in+fld + el; in + fid + el -\- ity . From thr w\\\\fi <!<;< come 
per+ftd + y or (i)ous or (\)ous + ly ; de+fy f* d$+Jl+aiU 
or ant + ly or wce ; /ai (Fr. /<n or /o//) + /A or /// -4- //^ or 
tli +ful + ly or ill +ful + ness or Ik -f /e.s-.s or /A -f lex* -f /// . 

-j 1 

Helps for the PupiL ' Confnh-nt. / .'Confidant, 

the one Irnxtri!. :i lUtrnlfnf. <li*tnixtfiil of ^-If. > disown or 

fnith in. to dare. 

Fin,* riiiil, from y/ ni re,flni tu, to end. 

/V//(e) ; ' wm, 1 '/>', re + fln Jt(e) 

de, Jn + de + jlH+able;* fln + ish or //+*. /</,//ie); 
jinit(v) + ly or /// +flnit + ive or # or wJ^ or (e) ; </ + 

Jinit+ inn or //v or (r). 

From the derivative // ^/^' //> we have /in - ' : jht / + ly 
or al+ity. From the derivative fi mi r< . t<> funiisli a tine or 
tax or subsidy, we have //// +<t/irr or </wr+(i)^/ Of /"^T. 

Helps for the Pupil. * Fine, a sum pai -, eruia, a ma 

y//<f, adj., what is well finished is fine. 2 Confine, to place within 
/ion ,uls. * Definable, that may have bounds, or an etid, set to it. 


To the Teacher. Sometimes two suflixcs arc found in a word the 
second adding nothing to, only repeating, the meaning of the first. 
Al, in genetical and generical below, seems only to duplicate the t. 

Fraiig,* Fract, Fractur, (frag, friny), from f'rangere, 
frdctus, to bend, break, subdue. 

Frang+ible or ibil+ity ; in, re+fr<nif/ --//>?< or tM/+ 
////; fray + nu'nt or ment + ary ; *t*/"-f/Vo0 l (e) ; ir-f r-f- 
fruy + able or abl + y; in+frinf/(^ : /// +/V'X<y(i) -f '//' 
Fr<t<'t + ion or ion + al or ion + s ; in, rc+fr<i<t ; in, re + 
ft'ttct + 10/& ; re +fract 4- ory or o/-/ 4- w^ss. Fractnr( 

From /ra^ i fo's we have fray + ile or *7+ //// . //</ 4- //; 
or il+ness. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Suffrage, perhaps from a broken piect, or 
}i< .-I sherd, used in voting. For other aid, see the Model preceding Les- 

son I. 

I ti,i<l, Fn., (/'<niitl./'onf-. from ///// <l<' rt-.j'n >//>-. to melt, 
to pour, pour out, shed. 

Ke+fuH<l: 1 n'+/'ttn<t I<HUK! ; j<nui<l 

or r//; />>///. /'" . ,, ,///', ///. pro, *///, //v/// 
/'//*( i ; /'//> M'"// or //>/ . '///', '/. ///, j>ru, trait* /'//s 

; '///', r/i-fusi 

111 derivative /// // //.<. pouring forth \ain talk, wo get 
fut + ile 4 or il+ity. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 /. to pnur. Otto pay. Lack. /' 

to melt, and pour intt> H mould. * Font of t yp- . ain, rmpty. 

Oeii, liienit, if/r///, y<'ntt. f/r/<f/, (/<>tit't>, from f/iy H<' >< or 
yi yen ere), to beget, produce. Gciicr,* from ye tins, 
yen er /s, kind, race, class, species. 

///'//( = ///) f-f/r/* 4-0 ^.s*; ' jtru + ye n+y; (</<n is found as 
a-sullix in many (Jrcck words ; as, hydro//'//, do- 

.of/cn) ; homo,* hetero* + yen + ((> yeni oral 

+ ity or al + ly or (us) (L.) ; in + geni + ous ;* yenu + im ; 
in +yritir +OHX* or ous + ness or ?/* + /// or //// : r//-//// (the 
(/excrescent) -her; m + {/enrf + *r. Genit + in- 7 or /// or 
or ; /?r0 + yenit -h or ; co/i 4- yenit 4- ^/ ; ycnet + /' 8 or t'c -f "/. 
Gener + al or /-f iVy or al + ize or al + iz + ft/-* in or fo or 
ic + al or ic + al + I// or 0w* or o.v-f //// ; r^// f/r//r/\ 

From the derivative ///'//<, /A'// //>. \v< 1 Iiavr </r//^ f A- 10 or 
eeZ or Zy or r# or lei-ness or tVe. 1'roni the dcrivat i\c 
gen era re, generii In*, we have yan-rttf ion or tV0 or 
or or (e) ; <&, re + yenerat + ion or i'/v or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. ! 7/w//' N in, and hence na1i\ 

- Homogeneous, lik? in kind; * hct Ftftfo in /./'////. 4 (,'r/i/n/. 

pleasant, A-////////. K Jnpi0fiHNM y gifted with inventi 
nous, high born, frank, nnblr. 7 6 . the BOOTO6 <-a-e. tin- o/'case. 

9 Genetic, pertaining to source or product inn. '' (icm run*. lilM-ral. cath- 
olic; a Duality >uppo-.-d t. 1. I..DI: to liiirh. nol.]c l.irtli. 10 (it /<//-. mild, 
refined; a quality Hjpp..~,-d lo belong to thoie of a chi /i^. 


To the Teacher. S m -..n. ,- n*<-ittinii. 

OIK- "! two .iity. !.!!! Kn-iNi \\ord-. for i^tantv, may be tipiml^ 

rarh of a miMilM-r of pupil-, at thr hoard. or at thi-ir --al-. Tin 

*re to Analyse, pUcing tin- pin- -i-n h. IW^MI prvflxea, root, AIM 

in-1 uii.l.-riiniii- thr root. An illustration of the uw of each 
uonl. should then lx) writUui. Thi iinjMirtant than writing A 


(ilrad, imrv**,* (yred, gradu, (/ree),Trom grddl, 
to step, walk, go* 

i: 1 retro + y r <l(i>) : r/- 1 "'/ t- tit 
f/ri'<f + (i)i'Ht ; 3 yra<lu i-<tl or *// /// or 

V^'' ' - ' '. //', /'/'", //''///> </!<*# . 

.s.s- ! '/'//** + prOM + 

////, <//, />/v; ,-f/ri'SS i 

the di'fivat i\c degraddre, " >'>i tns, corae A 

t ) ; /A '<ir<t<liit + ittn. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 ///Yiifc, a A/^/I in rank. * /m/r^/i>w/. thai 
\vliich /-/<//-i-x ///// a compound. ' Graduate, one elevaUnl t * grad* or 
degr> '/ression, tin- //'>'/i// out towards, or /, in ho-tility. 

jra1u. </r<iti. <jra<. yr< ), from {/r<ittt*. 
d(- r\ intr thanks thankfiil ; grdti*, by favor, without reward. 

r;/v//i- 7 f^// <r fnl + ne**; iw-r-f//"' 

r/rr//// / or it + on- : frail f 0ra + /infc; 

r/y./r //-ac(c)+/w/ or //// + /// or f ttl + ness or few or 

,/- .- : ///'.<-} *//'" -)-f/w/ or 
jrrac-f (!)""> >r (ijowx-f/// .r i MM ; a. 

</ / r(c) 4- r/ nife 4- iifjr* or fi/ -f y or 

in thr drrivativc ///////_ . yrat ificd tu*, Come 

</><(?< jit t/nifi jit-fit \ i<>n. Kn>m tin- derivative </nt/- 
u Id ri y gral u /// ///>, eome yratulat+wn or ///// oy ( 
con + yr<tttil<it + ion or ory or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Disagree, not to accord \vith or be agree- 

. (host, hot, o.s/), fnun //>rs. //os y>/ //.s-. OIK> who 
cnlrrtaiiis, or a 

' urttl+ity* or (tbfr ; host :'' /tost { MA ; host 
+ d or 7i o,tf -f- ^/ -f / // hot + el ; h ost -f / -f r / = o^ -f / 4 

Helps for the Pupil. l IIuMjHtul. a Indhliug ; k 

- //' is/tiffl /iff/, the p-lliTi'l. /'/// .!' u r IH'>l- Ho*!. \\ 

r. 1/vxtft-r, now Sy-sV/r/-; dice iln- iH't-kfCjtcr. in>\v I lie yroom. 

Ject*, (jet, jut), Tromjdcere,j<ictns. to lay, throw, cast. 

/, yv, 

ob, pro, re, mb+ject+ion; ad, ob, xidt+ject + ivi 1 ; ' ////. ///-o 
+J<'ct + <ir; ob jcct + ion + able ; ab+jert + lif or cfe 

+ject + cd or ed + ly or ^/ ness; 9 jet; j<t (t )//;' .////. 
From the derivative />/ c^' rr, to lie. we have <"/ ./V/r fry// 
or e;?6'7/; circum, *i'fn r+Jac-\- -////. l-'mm the tlerivati 

^re, COHJfrfux. and cjiirnld, \CUldtUS, \\r 

have ron+jectur + (d or al + ly or (e) ;* e+,j<K'ut<tt 
ory or (e). 

Hints for the Pupil. ' >S'/////rr/ lie mind, or the internal 

world, in distinction from o/ : rid. / 

ne*v. t being ottf dot**. *Jet,atht 

* Jetty, * proj-t,n. as a wharf. * <7o?(y 
throw out, as a guess. * Ejaculation, 

if /','//////>//. 

Jung, JIIIH (. JIIIM ! in . (join, joint, joitttttr , from 
ge re, jtiucttis, to bind, connect, unite. 

Join ; join,+ rr; <L con, </i*. m, re, sub + jot a : joint ; 
joint + hi. Jttitct + ion; con, dis, in+junct+ion;* run, 
\jinict-\-ive or ive + ly. Junctur(o) ; con, dis + 

; joitifitr(e). 

From t /w </ re, ju gd tus, derived from jugum, a yoke, we 
get con+jug + ar or al + ly or al + ity ; con, snb+juyat + 
ion or (e) 8 . 

Helps for the Pupil. J Injunction, an enjoining, a mandate. *C0tt- 

jn<)L jMTtaining to those joined in marriage. * Subjuyati \ literally, to 
cause to /y^.s.s under i\\e jugum, or yoke. 

Jur,* Jurat, from jurdre, jura tus, to take an oath, 
make oatli. 

, per+jur(e) ] jur + y l or or; per+jur + y 
or or; con+jur + or a orer/ 3 a^, ac?, con + jurat + ion. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Jury what is administered -1< a jury? 
2 Conjuror, one bound to others by an oaM. 3 Conjurer, a juggler, one 
who practiM's magic arts. 


To the Teacher. Do not let the pupil overlook the eonnnon meta- 
phorical uses of words. Have him see that in sayinir. f W// r/ \mir 
thoughts, Recall or recollect what lie >aid, Outlim \\\ you are 

using the words collect, recall, recollect, and outline not literally, but 

iigurat ively. nu-lapliorically.,* see Fer.* 

Legat, from le gd re, le gd tus, to bring forward, to 
on an embassy, to depute, to leave by will. 

egat + <> or (e) ; leg + acy;' /<f/dt + ion; 

L ilc, +legat+ inn ; </<> + legat(v) ; a ;r +f<>f/t 4- />//? or (e). 1 


Helps for the Pupil. ' / hi/ will. * Delegate, one 

deputed or appointed. y 7^ stud hack. 

, Lc<*t, ;: Lwtur, i//r/ f /r.s.s), from /<</< re. (<'< fun, to 

read, leather, rhoose. 

/.<?/ + //>/<' or ilnl + ilif or /W; 1 it + /<</ + ib/r nr /////{//// ; 
ro/ + /f0r(e); a | c, in + c + leg + ance or aw// 3 ley + rm/* or 
/ -f tf/7/ ; r , 5 /// 4- ^, /^/6'/ + J/f/ H- //>^' or /7>/7 -f //// ; r///' 

I -/iy + cHi or c^.ce or ent + ly. Col, did,' e, //////." /////, 
;r + 'W, se + l$ct; col, e, pre + tli* rr + col, se + lect + i'- 
/ --Iwt + ur; less + on. Lectur(o)\ lectur+er; l-tm 

Helps for the Pupil. J 7>///o/;, a chosen lunly >f men. ' : 
a collection of persons, a, semiimry. :i Klryanl what would 
manners or style be? 4 /j^/curf, once, that it/i/wind-il to !><' rnl ; 
now. a mytliieal story. r> A7 ///*////. <iualilied A/ /// C/HWH. r ' Ih'li<. 
oppo<c(l to m-f/Iif/t'/if ; jminxfuktiHJ ill the matter chnxi-n. 7 Ih'n/rrf, 
language rer/r/ and t^jinkcn throughout a limited reirion. " Intdhrl, 
the faculty of choosing, distinguishing, knowing. * I'mlUn-liim, a 
bias disposing one to a certain choice. 

LJfoer,* from liber, free, frank, acting at one's pleasure. 

or al + ly or <y/-h /^// or ^/-h />/// or ^/+ /'^'; /V-f 
or ^/4- ////. 

From the derivative noun Ulicr In*. lil> <T hi I is. \\r have 
/ibert + y or iw0 ! or iu + ism. From the dcrivati\f vc-i'b ////- 

; /v, UberdtU*, conic Hbet'<it+ ion or o/- or (c) ; 
liver;* de + liver + er or ^///rr or //. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 /,////////. on.- \vh<.M- tihrrti/ has 
1 1 ii re license. />> ; / '</-. t - - / / 

,* from // num. line a. (lax, thread. 
J/in(e) ; Wn + /-// ' or /; " Mn^e)-f ar or o^ or /// DI 
ment ; lin(\\)+et;* 

Elementary English. 27 

From de lin e a re, de lin e d tus, a derivative from linea, 
we have de + lineat + or or ion or (e). 6 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Linen is made of what ? and 2 lint of what? 
* Lineage, line of descent. 4 Linnets feed on what? * D^Hnt-ntt, to 

loiter,* from lit era, a letter. 

Liter + al 1 or al + ly or art/. 9 

From the derivative adj. lit e rd tus come liter at (e) ; i7 
-f liter at (e) ; i7 4- literat(e) + ly or Mm ; *7 -f litera + en : 
al -f literat -f i'ow 3 or ive. From the derivative lit e ra til 'ra 
comes liter at itr(e). 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Literal, according to the letter. ^ Lit- 
erary, pertaining to letters or literature. 3 Alliteration, repetition of 
the same letter at the beginning of successive words. 


Lioc,* I, oral, (loco, lien), from locdre, locdtus, to plan 1 , 

Loc + al or al + ize or al + ity ; loco + mot (see root, Les- 
son XVI.)4-'i'ow ! or inot + ive; lieu + ten (see root, Lesson 
XXVnLj+anf or ten-raucy. Locat+ion or (e) ; ro/. ///x 
-\-locat + ion or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Locomotion, movement from place to j9/oc. 

Loqu,* Locut, from ^o g/ei, lo cu tus, to speak, to talk. 

Loqu + acious orac + ity; 1 col, ob, son (see root, Lesson 
XXII.) +/of/// + ?/ ; r, magni + loqu+ent or ^wre; co/-f- 
(\)al or (\)al + ly; sot-i + loqu + ize;* ventr ?er, 

or f/w. 
or on -Vary or fow-f 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Loquacity t tnlknthvneM. *tii/ilin/n- 
talk nhnt<> and l<> one's >elf. trilntjnisl. >ne making his \niro 

seem to come from some nther than its n-al 

I. ml. l.u%, from /// <lr re. It't mis, to play, lauirh at, sport \\ith. 

Al? dej e. tntn\ pre + lu<l(v). Al, col* de, c, //' i /".*-f 
ion or ive or ive -f ///. 

From tin' derivative adj. In dicrus, AVC have Imfi (cr) "//> 
or (cr) 0ws -f /y or (cr)ous + w^55. 

Helps for the Pupil. ! A//n<l<*. to ////?/ f//. r^frr to. nut l<> <pi-ak 
fully of. 2 ])rln <!>'. toy/A/// ////// in order to deceive. In :< ro////.s/o//, 
n\e\\ play into eoc/i other's hands. * Illusion, a deceptive apprarar 

. (niagni)f from //ir/</ /<//s, great. 

Mayn + anhn + 0**6' or an tin + 7// y itun/n -f rr/^ 5 ; 
-f// orfi + er or fic + ent orfic + ent + ly OYjic + oire or 

From the derivative majestas come M<i.j<'st + i/ or /> or 
ic + al or ic + al + ly. From the derivatives mayixt<'i\ until 
is trains, come in((</ist?>r + (i)al or (\)al + lif ; nttisti-r ; 
tHffstci' + ly or /w/ or sAtp or Z^5 or # ; nttujisti-tit^ 

Iffan,* (tnanu 9 mairi), from rua i///s, the hand. 

,)/fM/ +^f/(c) : M<tn +<ig(e)+ment or < 
+ (&)cle (dim. of manica, a glove) or ceuvre 1 dj ///r ; J 
(four) + mt,n + ous ; manu+al or 
nunml -fartiir I -rr <r /'(irfi 
mtt* (see root, Lesson XV.) or miss + ion or script ( 
root, Lesson XXI.); a-f wante + 0ws + (is) (L.) : ni<tin + 
tain* (see root, I \\VIII.) or tain+aUe or 

-f-er or trn + a/i'-i'. 

From the <l-rivati\- manttre (I-'r. ), we have wf//Mn 
or er + ly or er4 Zi +ne8s* or er + isrn ;' un + iH(in(u) er 

Elementary Enylixlt. x! ( . 

ly or er + li + ness. From the derivative e man ci pare, 
e man dp a tus, we have e + man + cipat 4- ion or cipat + or 
or cipat(e). From the derivative 'nm itipuldtim we get 
tn(ftii + (pu\ ( <it)+ion or (pulat)-for or (pulat)(e). 

Helps for the Pupil. Manoeuvre and 8 manure are the same word, 
and = work by the hand. The chief work on the farm is to fertilize; 
hence it came to be called to manure, and the word was then tru in- 
ferred as a noun to the fertilizer. * Manumit, to send from oin-'- 
/Htm/ a slave, to release. 4 Maintain, to hold by the hand, to support. 
6 Mannerliness, rii-il manners. * Mannerism, peculiar style, or man- 
ner, offensively prominent. 


Iflar,* (mri), from md re, the sea. 

+ ine or in + er; sub, trans, ultra + mar + ine ; 

ma ri + time. 

]tlater,* (matr, matri], from iwa ter, md tris, mother. 

Mater(n) +al or //// ; matr + ix or on or on + ly or 
i^; inatri + mony or moni + al. 

From the derivative materia, matter, we get 
al or a? 4- Zy or a? -f ity or ? 4- w^ or a/ 4- w^ 4- ic or Z 4 / 
* or er + less. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 MaterntUxm. a doctrine attaching undue 
importance to matter. 8 Jhtftrr, the substance, and so, as it were, the 
mother of material things. 

Uledi,* from we efi w, middle. 

3f<W/4-(um) (L.) or / or ocr(e) or ocr + ity orev (wvum, 
n.iriO+flZ or ^rr (terra, earth) +an + ean. 1 

From me did re, nn> di <'/ tux, wr ^-t Hi<'<li<tt + or a or / 

30 \Yur,l-n,iil<ling. 

or 0rt+a? or (e) ; tw, $ inter f wr//r//(i ) : ////. inter + 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 J/ </;* liio sea named from ila 

him; IK-I \\trn what? * Mediator,' on > in fat twin t<> ivmnrilr. 

*/m, the negate 

Iflcnt,* from mens, men tis, tho mind. 
3/riif 4- a/ or / + ly ; de -f inent -f ed. 

Ulerc,* (merci, merch, market), from mercdri. >n< red* 
tus, to trade. or ant + He; com + IH <'*<(?) ; 3fr'rr + wr4-// ! : 
com 4- utewi +aJoral + ty ; merch + fltt/ or and ( = atif) 4- ?'2;e 
or unt + dble; ntrh-<'t (from ntcrcat, the ]).}>. root); 

Helps for the Pupil. T Mercury, tho ^od of 

]flerg,* Mer, from merge re, m^rsus, to plunge into, to 

Merg(e) ; e, im, sub + merg(e) ; e + mcrg + ent or ercce or 
' 4- merg 4- m<?0. ^, trw, 5W^> 4- w *'/*< 4- /ow ; //// . 

sub f 

Helps for the Pupil. > Emergency, a pressing necessity suddenly 


,* Mitral, from -nti </t-fi rt\ mi f/r<t tus. to io from place 
to place. 

Migr + ant; e, im+nUgr+ant. Migraf+ion or ory 

(l)irds) or (e) ; e, im, trans 4 miyrtif * i<m or (). 

Mir,* ]?Iirat, (mira, mirr), from nurnri. Htirrifus. to 
look at, \\omli-r or in;ir\<-| at. 

.)//'/ d + mir + able* or abl + y 01 W or /'//// or ///// 

1'lli-nn-nhiry English. 

+ ly ; mira+cle ( ctilttm) or cul + ous or n/l + ous 
tnirr + or. A<l m'n'ut + ion. 

The Fr. merveille, from the derivative mirdbilis, gives 
us iHttrt' + el or el+ous or el + ous + ly or el + ous+ness. 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Miruyr what is the optical illusion, <-;tll-<l 
mirage, which can *cs wonder? -Admirable, the mere wonder 
no\\- into approbcUion. 

Mitt,* Uliws, (ni it, mis), from w// /^ /y, nits sits, to SIMM!, cast, 
throw, Ivt go. 

, re + mitt + ance ; re + mitt + ent 1 or er; inter + in iff 
+ ent* or ing + ly ; com + n<ift + ee oral; nil, com. <. inter, 
ntftu //, tt, per, re, xuu, trans + nt it. Miss + ice or al 3 or He 4 
or ion or ion -h ary ; re + /// />* ; r^ -f //* iss + 72^5 ; ' rt</, ro/// . 
/', /y//r/\ in<tn-u,o,per, re, sub, trans + m iss + ion ; ad. / 
trans + miss + Me ; per, sub + ni iss + ive ; com -f /** is* -h ion 
+ er ; com, e + niiss + ari/ : com + pro, de, pre, pro, 6 sur + 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Remittent* xlackt-tntHj in effort. 
inittent, r -i-i'mHr in HTnrt. :> Mixxtif. the mass-hook ///^.s.s from f72isa 
/-x/ (the congregation is dismissed), with which word> the service closes. 
4 Missile, that thrown. llnnixxness, slackness. * Promi*-. to jt^w/, or 
*nnl forth, a binding declaration. 

I?Ioii,* Uloiiit, (nionti), from in one re, tn<'nt i tns. to 
rcinind, warn. 

J/7 f ///<>// + /V* ; 5w;n H- //*o/* ; ' x///w ! y/*o/* -{-er or 5 ; 
)n<ut +ment* or ment+al. Moiiit + or or ton or ory or 
or + ship ; ad, pre f in on it -f i'ow or ive or or//. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Summon, to /m/-// to appear. 9 Monument, 
that ly which people are n// t >'//> <l ..f -..met him:. 

9Iort,* from tnors, im'trtis. death. 

Mort + al or al + ity or al + ly or utiiht ' or gage 8 ; im + 
mort + aZ or / -h fc or al -f t///. 

From the tlrriviitivt- nun- ti ri <-<i rt\ mortifi cdtu9 t come 
or ]ic<it + ion *. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Murf/nfii/i. property pa ini: t" ii 1 .'' < 'liurdi 
Wlfl inalit'iialilc. |>af(l. as it won-, into tin- /mm/*- ! a // '"/ man. 

.I/'. ';;-/,/.. land held ly ///or///m/r Ix-canic l(-l. <>r ///////. to I IK- mnrl- 
gagor, on Itn-at-li of tin- condition. : ' Mnrhjiattiun, tin- niftaplirical 
meaning is rfe//< of ]>ridc. 


To the Teacher. For oral recitation, a Latin root-word. //, 
for instance, may be put on the l>oard. Different |>upil> may name the 
several root-forms from this. These may be written in a column 
U-ncath. Other pupils may IM- a>ked in <:ivr the preti.\e> and the Mif- 
fixes that unite with each root-form. Write the prefixes in a column 
to the left of the root-form and the suHixes in a column to the ri-hi. 


Then l.-t otlier pupils condiine the>e into \\'>nU. explain the mcan- 
of each prei; Cottn, and Millix. and illuslrate tin- 1186 oi t h 

words which th-y 

Jlov, Tlil,* (///ou fn.m IHO r<' !<-. luofus.iu ino\i>. 

Mav + er or able or <ihl // ; hn-\- nior \ uhlr or ii 

Ele a i rtilnrti Knfj 1 is // . 33 

re + mov-f al or able or ed + nes* or (e) : 

+ ment. Mot -{-ion or or or iv0; ' -t- /** of + w a or 

dl or /ye; pro + mot + ion or iVe or er; joro, re + mot(e) ; 

com + wof -f ion ; in o + ment 3 or w^w/ + ary or wen/ -f /^ o r 

ment + ous 4 or ment + ous + ly or 7newtf + (uni) (L.) ; nto + b 

(the ^ from the ending i/7/s or fo70 in mdbilis, nu'ibUr, easily 


Helps for the Pupil. ' J/o///r. a n-ji^mi fr rlunnji- nf purpose, for 
innrt'iniiil. - Kmnt'uni. ///</ mail, agitation, of tin- fWlin^s: the 1 
ing itself. *M<nnrnt. an instant of time; of iniportancr. * Motn 
ous, of molding force. 

or Multi, from multus, many. 

Multi + tfwcfe or /wrf 4- (in) -f ows or 7>/y (see Lesson XX. for 
the four roots ply, plic, ple$ pli) or y >//< + ?V// or ^e or y>// 
+ ^y or itlic + and or plicat+ion or form (sha})e or form) 
or form + it y ur fu r + (i)ous. 

,* (mon, nuuii). From w/f /*//>-, mii tic ris, a duty, an 
office, a grift. 

7m -h iw // // 4- //// ; ' ro??2 -h W*.M w 4- //,?/ 2 or /x/ or fow or 

tHOH ; 3 com + won + er or /^ or al + ty <>r y/rx^ or ; 
/ /n* / f//<- + ew^ 4 or /rr 4- ^>// -f /y or ji<*-{-ence. 

From the derivatives com mit ni care, cow nut ni C(i I"*. 
and 7*e m?^ fttf ?* ;/, re w?^ HC nt ///>'. wi' Isnvr /vy/y/ -f nuuii<' + 
ant or ^/y/r ; emu +- nut H h't \- it,ti nr //v or (e) ; + < 
+ imtHi<'(tt + ion or (e): re + HiHiicr + abte ; re+ mum-rat 
-\-ion 6 or ?>0 or (< 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Immunity. <\rf motion from r7w/y. - 
munift/. nil *hn //////. * Commnn. xlutn-J l.y .///. * Mnn(ii<-mt. inn 
lavish /////. 5 7/' iftofC, ///'/////. *>\- that gtivn. in 

:', i 

\a<*. \al,' \alur, from m/s r/, /m ///s, to he horn. 

Nasc + ent or e/jcy. 1 Xat + al or ion 1 or ion + <:l or / 

al+itii or iu/t+al+ize or ire or iv+itt/; ///, r>/// : /m 
\<tfnr + (tloral + ly or al + ness or al-l-ize or <it i - /W or 
iz+at + ion or (e) ; ' ////, />/<'/>'/-, 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Nascency, si.-iic nf ////-/A. l-ll \ Minl>i;i ally, 
hut not in fact, "-nation naim-s a jM-nplr uf tlic W Wr^// nr >toofc 
* Cognate, born with <>ne. * Nature, i-lyint.l^ically. tin- i.h-a ..r /;//7A 

Iav,* from /i<f r/s, ship. 

JWfr (c): ' nfir + al or y. (For navigate, etc., see A. ) 
From the derivatives wa? ^i r^x and w/// x^' ^/ /r, //^// 

have nttuf + ic + al or ic + al + ly; mritsr + ow or (a); 
or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 JYiru*e, tlic hody of the church, liknu-.l t a 
\nusea, ca-sickncss appropriai 


,* from HOS ce re, no tits, or gn6s cc rr, t/ito tus. to know. 

Not (e); ' not + er or grf or ice or ice -{-able or ?W or / 
aZ or ori + ous.* 

From the derivative notificdre, notified tux. to make 
known, we have iiofi +f'f/ or jicut + ion. I-'roni /// //// /v/ rr. 
not to know, we have i (= iu) + </nor + a/if or ^//rr or 
WW 3 or (e). Krom the derivatives ////' /// //>-, /// //<; /// //x. we 
liave no + ble* or bfl + i/i/ or /// j -// or b/c-^ness; i + gno + 
ble or #/+y or ifo+ I-'rom notdre, no id tus, come 

iint+dble ' '-Hy or abil+i/t/; itofttf -{ -A/// ; <A . 
no/i '/*, 6/e, con + Hot<it + in/t : (< n<>f(tf(<-). l-'nun 

/J/r nn 1 ni <i rij English. 35 

rot/ Hoxcere, cdgnitus, we have co + yuiz + ancc or ant or 
able; co + ynU + ion; re + co f gniz + ance or a6fe or (e) ; 

+ ynit+(o) (It.). 

Helps for the Pupil. l Note, a mark l>y which a tiling i- 
2 Notorious, with us. known for /w/ (juaiitics. 3 Ignoramus, a block- 
head ; but ivally, amus is the 1st per. plu. indie, ndin- "f L. v.-rl. : 
1 1 v i ice ignoramus = ive are ignorant. 4 Noble, known for ^rooci q i ta 1 i 

JVumer,* IVumerat, (number), from nutue ra re, nu tin- 
nitus, to count, to 

or al + ly or 0^5 or ous + ly or 0t + m# or /'r 
or ic+al+ly ; in + nuiHcr + able; super + H it Htcr + 
/;' number; nttinbcr + er or Ze^. Xtum-rnt-rion or 
or or (e); e + minn'rat + ion or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Supernumerary, one in excess. 

, VuiK'ial, (nounc), from //"/< r* f/ /v% tutu ci a 
to proclaim, report* 

Nutici -}- (o l ) (It.); a^i, de* e, pro, 3 re + nottn<-(e); an, 
de, e + nounc(e)+ ment ; pro + noun <-(v) + able ; an, e, re + 
H it n<'i<tf -\-ion or (e) ; pro+nunciat+ionj de + nttnci<tf 

+ ion or or or ory. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Nuncio, a |>aj>al Mllfouttkior. * Denounce, 
\n proclaim tluvjiteningly. * Pnuumnrf. in utt r .-r speak forth. 

from 6r ?f //f>, eye. 

or />7 or (tr + 1y ; bin +<>ctt/ 
From tluMlerivalivi' inocuW r<\ in oc u Id />/*. ire li;i 
4-oculat + ion or or or (e). 1 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Inoculate. t> en-raft a l>u<l, or *y, of one 

live into another. 

36 Wor(/-/lui?f/int/. 

Li-:ox XVIII. 

l*aiv I'aral. i/vr, jxtir), from yw r<i /<', pa r/f /f/s, to see, 
to iret ready, or make ready. 

CVwi, pre+par (e); cow, in-}- com, in + se, re, ir + re, se + 
jut r + able or abl + y; com+par+fo) (Fr.)+on; se, <//* 
-h S0 4- t'c*' ; 50, dis + 56 + t'e/' + a?i6 e ; x^' -f r/'f- + a/ ' or al + 
Jy ; re + pair. Pre, re,' se + jntrat + ion ; com + pa rat -f- 
ive; pre+ parat + ory ; apparat+(u&) (L.)- 

Helps for the Pupil. l Several, once, many taken w/Hini/c/y ; now, 
not iH'ivssarilv oiu- ly one. 

Parl * from Fr, partvr, to talk. 

I'arl + ance or or 1 or (ia)m6nl* or (\i\)incnt \ anj or 
(ia)f?i*l+ar**+an or ey. 3 

Helps for the Pupil. l Parlor, tlic nwun l'r /f^/r. 2 Parlinim id. 
talking, and then & place for it. * Parley, a coniVivn< < -. 

I'art,* (port, parti, par, pars), from pars, partis, a 
piece, port ion. share. 

Part ; a, counter +2>art; part + y or 7y; r/, rfe, co?/i-f 
part + menl; port-}- ion or ion -}- less ; ap + port + ion or iow 
-f ment ; pro+port + ion 1 or ion + al or ion + able ; j>arti-}- 
al* or al + ly or al + ity or cle or cul + ar or cul + ar + ize or 
cul -\-ar-\-ity; par + eel; y>r/r.s(c). 3 

l-'rnin par t{ re, par ti tut, to <lividc, conic part it -\ i<ni or 
tW or ive + ty ; de, im \ -part ; <lc -\ part -f ///v ; 

er=*i>artit + ion + er ; partn+er+ship. ( l-' 
etc., see C'up.) 

Helps for the Pupil. Proportion, ivlatiun brl \\vni ///^.Y. hannoni- 
OUS ;irr;HL r <-FinMit of /^//7x. etc. - r<trti<il. appertaining to a ^rtr/ in 
distinction fn.m the //;/w^e. * Parse, lo A-// the /^//Y.S- <,f -peeeh. 


Past,* Patur, from pds ci 9 pas ta 9 to feed. 

l f dtit + or l or or + al or or + ship or or-\-ate; re+past* 
/Vf.sf ///((') ; jMtsfui' + age or 0r. 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Pastor, a tiltc/thenl, n-al or metaphorical. 
2 Repast, a /wea?, 

t, Pa**, : - (jMifi), from />*/ ?/ ri, y>r/s s//.s, to suffer. 
Com/ in+com+pat+ible or ibil^-ity or t'W-h //; 

2 or ent + ly or 6^ce; im+pati + ent or ent + ly <r 
I '<i$a -\-ion or tve or ion -{-ate; im+past+iw or ion + edj ' 
com + pans + iou or Ion -{-ate or ion + ate + ly. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Compatible, agreeing willi rai -h other, each 
suffering the other. -Patient, suffering, the one suffering, but with- 
out murmur. 3 Impassioned, the tm adding force, intensity. 

I'alCT,* (pair, patri), from />a fer, #a ^ r * s ^ father ; pdtria, 

)a7 or (n)ity ; patr + on or on + age or on + ize 
or on + ess; /xttri+mony; patri + ot or ot + ic or ot+i- 
or o# + *c + al-\-ly ; com +p<ttri + o^; "* ea: + />fif ri -f r^ + f W 
or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. i Compatriot, a fefoto-WUntryman, 


To the Teacher. In reviews you may give Latin root-words, and 
require pupils to write or give all the rout-forms from these, used in 
Knglish. with one or more words in winch each root-form is found. 

The teacher will sec that a great variety in manner of recitation 
easily be devised. 

Ped ? * from pes, pe ills, foot. 

or esfr + ian or est + al; bi. t/mntru 


From the derivatives ex pe dire, cxpeditus, to I'm- from, 
to make easy, and //// /trt/i rt . imjn i <ii /u*. \\c p-t /-./ - />*/// 
4-0w or ency ; ex+pcdit + ion or (i)ous + ly; ! im+ped(v) ; 

Helps for the Pupil. l Expeditiously, with hurrying feet. 2 7m- 
pediment, literally, something by which the /eetf are obstructed; how 
used metaphorically? 

Pell,* I Mi K (/>e, pelt), from />e^ te re, ^*U SMS, to drive, push, 

Pro+pdl + er; com, dis, ex, im, pro, re -{-pel. 
im, re+pnls(Q); com, ex, im, pro, re+puls + ion or ive ; 

From the derivative pul sd re, pul sd tus, we have palsat 
+ ion or ive or ory or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. l Pulse, the blood driven in beats. 2 Pelt, to 

Pend,* Pen, from pen de re, pen sus, to hang, rely upon. 

Ap, de, im, sus+pend; pend + ant or ent or w/ + (um) 
(L. ) or ul -f ous ; de, in 4- c?e +pend + ent or ence ; ap -f- />^/' '/ 
-fa^e or la;; 5W5+i>eiicZ + er + 5. Pens + He ; sus+2>ens + 
ion or (e). 

Pend,* Pen, (pendi) 9 from pendere, pen sus, to weigh 
out, consider, pay out. 

Com,, ex, s ( = dis), sti (slips, a irift irivrn in small com)-f 
pend ; com +pendi + (um ! ) ( L. ) or ous or ous + ?y ; ^' -f 
pendi 4- ary. J9w, a 0.? 3 4-^i(e) ; ^ 4-i>eiis 4- tV^ or ^ve 4- ly 
or tve 4- ness ; pens 4- ton or i'0n -f er or ive * or iV0 4- ty> 

From the derivatives com pen sd re, com pen sd tus, and 
dispensdre, dispensdtus, we get com+penfat+ion or 

(e) ; re+eom+petwfe)] dis+pens + er or able 01 ft'>!e + nes8 
orary; 5 in + dis + pens + able or able + ness; dis+pens<it 
4- tVw e or we or ory. 

Helps for the Pupil. * Compendium, an abrid^nu-nt. * Dispense, 
to cfeaJ <wtf in portions; what is it to dispense ivith f 3 Expense, liter- 
ally, weighed out, as gold still is in the Bank <f England; cost. 
4 Pensive, thoughtful, considering. * Dispensary phuv \\hnv what is 
done? 6 Dispensation, the act of, or the government, meting out. 

Pet,* Petit, (petu, peat), from pet ere petitiis,to ask, to 
seek, to rash at, to fly to. 

Com +pet(e) ; com -\-pet 4- znt or ence ; in 4- com +pet 4- ent 
or ence ; im 4- pet + (us) (L.); centri (center) -h/>^f 4- al; im 
+petn 4- OMS or 0^5 + ?y or ous + we55 or os -f Vy ; re 4- />ff/f ; 
re+peat + er or eJ or ed + ly. Petit + ion or ion + er or 
; com, r^ -{-petit 4- z'o/i ; com + petit + or or tVe ; ^ 


Plet,* found in compounds of pie re, to fill. 

Com, de,' in + com., re* + plet(e) ; com, in + com+pl< 
4- ly or ness ; com, de, in 4- com, re +jMet 4- ion ; ex +plet 4- 
Itte. 3 

Helps for the Pupil. Note the force of de and re in ' deplete and 
' 2 replete. ' Expletive, used to fill out. 

Plic,* Plieat, or Plicit, (^c, />, />/y, !>/// y>^// />'' ' 
from />W ca re, pJi c<i ^us, to fold, bond, turn. 

.Com, du, vmHL sim 1 (= semel, once) + -j>lic + ify ; ac + 
com +plic(v) ; sim, sup 4- pie ; sim 4- />/* 4-/V / i>?i -I- aw/ or 

/e or ancy or abil+ift/ or able + ness ; ply ; ap, com, im y 
mis + ap, MH/ti, re+jtly: 1 ?m+]>/oi/f* em+jrfoy+er or 


merit; de+pfoi/: tli* />/<///;' com. da. mufti I />/< .r. 
Ex* im' + i>fi<'it : ex, itn r ittirit \ /// or MM*. .!/>. '///. ////, 

' + ap, imifti, re, sup i>/i<-<it \ ion ;^ com, du, ex, ////, 

p - 7 itli<-<i 

Helps for the Pupil. ' tfi/ii/>/irifi/, literally, -late of bein^ .-mule. 
niicombined, without fold. How dec- il -.-! its meaning of ;il)s-in-i- !' 
cunning. <>r of sn.iracit y ? How <lnrs duplicity mean cunnini:. <!<<}! ^ 
9 Reply what is returned in a reply ? * Employ, to involve. infnl<l. by 
usin^. occupying. * Display, to unfold, as a Hair. l< show. /;\r/t/irit, 
unfolded, and hrn<v distinctly seen : * implicit, folded in. the meaning 
only implied. 'Supplication, the leg from the knee down Ar/*/ /////A-/- 
in kneelinic in jtrayer. 

Poll,* Po^it, Poslur, (pound, post), from pone re, pos- 
it us, to place. 

Post+pon(v)', poxt + pon(u)+ment ; com, de, ex, op + 
pon + ent; com, ex, pro + pound. De + posit ; jtosff \ inn 
or ive 1 or ive + ness orw+istj ap, com, op + j>osit((>)\ <t/>. 
com, de, de + com, dis, ex, im, inter, juxta, op, pre, pro, 
sup, trans + posit + ion; com, de, ex + posit + or ; <1> posit 
+ ory* or ary ; 3 post;* post + al or age; com, im-\ -post: 
im+post + or 6 or ure. J'ostur(e). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Positive, placed, fixed, in opinion. ' My>o.s- 
itory, the ])laee where tilings are placed; * deposit an/, the one with 
whom. * Poxt, a stake fixed in the ground; a military station: a 
position of duly. How a conveyance for letters? '* Inip<mfnr. one 
\\ho imposes upm 1hers. deceives them. 

Port,* Porlat, from portii r<', /torfti fus, to carry, convoy, 
bear along. 

Port ; ! com, de, dis, ex, im, s ( = dis), sup, pur* trans + 
port; port + able or able -{-ness or er or er + aye or /// or 
ti + ness; ex, im, re, sup + port f er or able; i 

Kif 111 ' n ht i- [i ////////>//. n 

ant 3 or ance ; de+port + ment ; de, ex, im, trans + ]>orf<if 

+ iott. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Port. > of the body. - /'i/r/vo/V. m<'an- 

\\\ carried, tenor of. 3 Important, carrying ^oinethin^ of weight 
importance, within. 

Port,* ( porch}, from por fa, a gate or door. 
fort ; l port + aloreror r + ess or ic + (o) (It); porch. 
Helps for the Pupil. 1 Port, opening, as in yw/7-hole. 


PON,* from Fr. poser, to place ; Low Latin, pan sa re. 

ros(v) (attitude); com, de, c.c, im, inter, op, pro, jtt/r. 
re, sup, trans +pos(z) ; com+pos + er or ure or ed + ly or 
ed + ness; pro+pos + al ; ex+pos + ure. 

Prim,* (prin, pri), from pr\ nt us. first. 

./'///w(e); z prhn + er or Z or r# or it + ive or > / < 
age)4^; priu + cip + le or cip + al or cip + al + Ii/ or <-//>4 
al + ity or cip + al + ship : prin" + c(e) (c(e) from capere, to 
take); i>rin + c(v) + ly or c(e)4^om or c + ess; pri+or 
(ending of the L. comparative) or or + ity or or^. 3 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Prime, first in (juality. /'//////. tin- 
l)erson. 3 Priory, the house jre>iled over ly a prior. 

Sacr,* (sacri 9 secrat), from sacrdre, sacrdtus, to set 
apart as sacred, to dedicate. 

Sacr + ed or ed + ly or ed+ness; ><frr(a)4w/ or went 
+ al; sacri+flc+(i)al or//r(c): sr/r/-/ { /<// I (i)o//N T/<y/ 
4(i)o5-f /y orlcy(o). Ex + ecr(= seer =sacr)+ able;* ex + 

42 \Yord-BuildiHii. 

or (e) ; con, de f sccrat + ion or or 

or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. l Execrable, worthy of the curse proiioiuu -t-d 
upon things not sacred, unholy. 

Sci,* from sci re, sci tus, to know. 

Sci + ence orent(i) +fic or ent(\) +fic + al or ent(\) +fic + al 
+ ly ; con, pre + sci + ence: 1 con + sci + ous or ous + ness;* 
con + sci + ent + (\)ous* or ent + (\)ous + ly or ent+ (i)ous + 
ness; omni(&Q)+sci+ent or ence; un + con + sci + ous or 
ous + ness or ly. 

Helps for the Pupil. * Prescience, a knowing beforehand, fore- 
knowledge. 2 Consciousness, a knowing with one's self. 3 Conscien- 
tious, governed by conscience, behaving by the rules of right. 

Scrib,* Script, Scriptur, (scriv, scrip), from scribe re 
scrip tus, to write. 

Scrib(e) ; a, circum, de, in, pre, pro, sub, super, trans + 
scrib(e)', sub + scrib + er ; scrib + (b)le or (b)l + er; s<-rir 
+ en + er. 1 Script; con, manu, non + de, post, re, tran + 
script; a, circum, con, de, in, pre, pro, sub, super, trun 
4- script 4- ion ; de, pre, pro + script + ive ; scrip. Script- 
ur(e); scriptur + al. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Scrivener, once, a money lender ; now, one 
who draws contracts and other writings. 

Sent,* Sen*, (senti, seusu), from sen ti re, sen sus, to feel, 
think, (>erceive. 

As, con 9 dis, re + sent; dis + sent + er; s(c)ent; 1 scut 
+ encej* sent +ent + (i) ous* or ent + (\)ous + ly ; re + scut 
+ment or ful;' senti + ent or ment or ment + alor ment 
pre + senti + ment. Scns(u) ; sens(u) + less or 

Elementary Enylixh. 43 

less + ly; sens + ible or ibl + y or ibil + ity ; non 4- *ens(o) ; 
wow 4- sens + ic + al ; sensn 4- / or aZ 4- t7y or o?*s or ows 4- ly. 
From the derivative adjs. sen sd tus and sens-it if, we 
have sensat 4- iow oriow + a?or ion + al + ly ; sensit + iveor 
ive + ftm. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Scent, snun-tliing perceived by ih< 
2 Sentence, containing a thought. * Sententious, wi'iirlity with thought. 
* Resentful, literally, /*// of the feeling toward out- which In- 
toward you ; now, full of indignation, auger. 


Sequ,* ^ecut 9 (sec, sequi, su, sect, suit), from se qui, se en- 
tus, to follow. 

Sequ + el or ent or ence ; con + sequ + ent or ence or 
ly ; sub + sequ + ent or ent + ly; sec + ond 1 ( = und, the ge- 
rundive suffix=the pres. part.) or ond + ary or ond + ari + ly 
or o?z^ -{- /i/ ; oZ> + eiyt 4- es or ows a or ous 4- /^ ; .<w(e) ; 
jt??/r + s*(e) ; pur + su -\-ant or flwce or ^r. Per, pro + seen t 
4- ion or or or (e) ; con + sccitt + ion or it# or ive + ly ; ex 
+ ecut (=8ccttt)+ion or ive or ion-\-er or or or r4< 
.srff ; 3 secf -f ffr^ or ari + an or an* 4- w 4- ism ; suit ; su it 
+ able* or able + ness or or or (e) ; 5 pur + snit. 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Secon d, next after lir-t. r:illol wc^wrf be- 
cause it follows the first. * Obsequious the 

will of another. 3 &c/, /07/o/wx of sune one. *tfuil(tMt\ follows 
the style of, adapted to. N///A- of rooms; a train of followers. 

(soli), from so //fs, alone. 

o/(e); 8ol(e) + ly; sol+(o) (It.); soli + loqu +y or 

soli -{-hide. 
From soli (as come solit + ary or ari + ly. From the 

1 1 Word-Building. 

derivative des o Id re, des o Id tus, we have de + soldt(( ) +ly 
or ness ; de + so/at + ion or (e). 

Spec,* or Spic, Sped, (spiri, sp<-<-i. >/>//, >y>/>, from spec 
(or spic)ere, spec tits, to look at, 

^ ( =av, from em', bird) + sjtic + es ; l de + spic + able a 
or abl+y ; s/>/c(e); 3 su + spic + ion ;* su, an, in+au + 
sjtici + ous* or ous + ly; speci + al or <ms f or >// f-/// or 
0s 3 or (e) ; 3 e 4- spec* -f a?; >;"'<'' -f men ; spy ; e + spy ; 
e -f spi + al or on + #0. ^4 , circum, pro, re, retro,, su + spft-f ; 
circum, intro, retro + spect -f ion ; Intro, pro, re, retro -f 
spect + ive ; re + spect + able 1 or abl + y or abil + ity or ful 
orful + ly. 

From the derivatives con spic u us, per spic u us, we get 
con, per 4- spicit + ous or ous-rly or ous + ness ; per + spic tt 
+ ity. From the frequentative spec tare, spectdtti*. \\v 
get specta + cle (=cule) or cle + s ; spccfftt + or ; 
( = spect) ; ex -rpect + #w ; ea- + pectat + ^o/i ; 7 w 
in + spect + iou or or or or + ship. From the 
spec ifi cd re, spec ifi cd tus, we get sped -\-fic or /// or 
a/ or fic + al + ly or flcat + ion. From speculdri, 
u Id tus, to explore, watch, we get specnlat + ?*ow or ire < r ( c ) . 

Helps for the Pupil. ' . 1 //.symv-x, OIK-.-, oincii I'l-oin llic flight of 
////v/x; inidri- 1 li- tiuspices of=Uli(lT t lie \ ;it roliMLTc of. " lh'x]n'nthli'. 

deservc(ll\- lonkt-d down upon. :1 ,s/;/Vv, :i x/^r/Vx. :t x/>/-r/r tilings of a 
/,-/////. d-r/rrsx. liavo generally 7tA:e r/x/A/r t'oi'in-. II.-IKT. <n 1 In- nut Imrii y 
of G. I*. .Marsh. xy^r/V-x cninc to menu /,-/////, r///xx ,- llic /-/Wx or 

classes of Ivisti-ru nn-n-liainlise were drags and condiments, hence these 
were called spice* : species is thQ,viMU form in distinction from that 
which reprftu'/i/K it. hence x//rr/V \v;i^ taken to name ^oM ami silver 
when paper money appcai'eo! as their ivprot-ntal ive. * Sux/tirinn, & 
looking askance at. or wit h mist rust. M //x///V-/o//x, tlie omen favorable. 
i well, phtnsihle. lnt tlie (i/>/><'<tr<i/ic< </;/'//','. 
1 fttej literally. //v>/7/< Innkuuj til 



Spity* Spirit. (spirit, spriyht, sprit}, from spirdre, spi- 
rit fns, to breathe. 

A, con, in, per, re, re + i?i, tran + spird ) ; ex 
(=^p<r)(e); 1 a+*pir+ant. % A, in,per,re< tra 
-\-ion ; spirit ; spirit--}- less or ed or >W | /// <.r /// {-ness; 
spright; spright f /// <r//// ; sprit(e). 

From thu dm \aii\r spiritudlis, we have spirit n+al 
or al + ly or al + ize or al + ity or al + ism or al + ist or 

Helps for the Pupil. i E.rpire, to breathe o?//, die. /, In- 

who )Htntx for soinct lung. 

Stru,* Struct, Structur, (stroy}, from sfrw c re, struc tits. 
to make, buil<I, arrange. 

^^^/ mis" +con + sfrtt(v) ; in + stru + inent* orment + al 

or it>ent + al + ly or ment + al + ist or ment + al + it)j ; de + 

strof/;* de + stroy + er. Cov, ///. ob+stntcf. in, 

ob + struct + ion or /'vr or ire + li/j con, in i struct \ or. 

Struct it r(a>) ; super + struct ur(c). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Ciuixfriir. t. .v/ / in <mhr. ! tr;in>ljil- : 
2 m*eswi//.s7/'//^, to s^ //////.vx. tn misunderstand <>r Mis!Tj>ri'.rni. 

xtrtinit'ut. ;i inarliiiM- fur mnkiiuj 4 />'*//"// '" 
pull down. 

Sum,* Sumpt, (sumptu), from sfimere (sub + tme* 

sump tus, to arrogate, to tako up, to 

+ ing ; con, in + con, pre, re + *um + (tM<". con - >///// er. 
Jx. r^//, ;^/v, re + ftumjtf + ion ur /'/r ; sumptu -out 1 or 
0^5 + J// or r t i/ ; jo;* -h sumptu -f o//x 3 or ows -f / 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Siuni>ti>us. .r/vnsitr. luxurious. 
sumptuous, taking liberties unduly, rashly. 

43 Word-Building. 

Tang, Tart," (ting* t<uj. tign. taut, fey, tjr. tor///, 
from tan ge re, tdc tits, to touch, to reach, to handle. 

Tang + ent or ency or ible or ibl + y or ibil + ity or ent + 
(\)al ; con + tiny + ent 1 or ent + ly or ency ; con + tag + i<m ~ 
or (i)ous or (\)ous + ness; con+tigu+ous* or ous + ly or 
o?/s -f w-ess or ity ; at + to in ; at -f tow -h 47e 4 or able + w^s 
or w0tt ; in + fegr -f er J & f# H- *<'{/*' -h ^/ or tVy." Tact ; ' t<-t 
+ ile; con, in + tact ; tiicttt. + al ; to8f(e);" tst(e) + less or 
fes 4- w^s ; tast(e) +ftil 9 or /wZ + ly or /?/? + ness. 

From the derivative in te grd re, in te grd tus, come in -f 
tegr + ant ; in + tegrat + ion or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. * Contingent, touching, resting upon, and so 
dependent. 2 Contagion, transmission of disease by touch -ov contact. 
3 Contiguous, touching. 4 Attainable, reacJidble. 5 Integer, untouched, 
whole. 6 Integrity, character untouched, sound. 7 Tac/, s^i// in touch- 
ing, in handling. * 7'oste, literally, to touch with tongue or palate. 
9 Tasteful, agreeable to our /o*fe (metaphorical?) for the beautiful. 


To the Teacher. The pupil, made familiar by this work with tin- 
roots, prefixes, and suffixes used in these lessons, can never go far 
astray in his use of the many English words which they form. Such 
an acquaintance with these words as shall enable him to employ tin-in 
intelligently and correctly is an attainment to be coveted, one worth 
all the labor and pains it costs him and you. We know no bet In- road 
to it than that which, under your direction, he is following. 

I ii. I nil. (uni) 9 from unire, unitus, to join, make one; 
u nus, one. 

Un + ion or anim + otis or anim + ity; dis, re + 'un + 
ion; tri + un(e); 1 un + ique; nni + corn (cornu, liorn) or 
son (sonus, Bound, harmony) or voc (see root below) +al or 
vers (vertere, to turn)+Z or vers + al + ity or vers (e) or 

Elementary English. 47 

form or/orm-M'fy or///. Unit (one) ; unit+y* or ari'-f 
rt/4 or (e) ; dis, re + iinit(e). 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Triune, three in one. * Z7/i%, 

Ut,* Us, Usur, (usu), from # i, ti sis, to use. 

Ut + ens (=ent)+il; ut + il + ity or il + ize or il+iz + at 
+ ion or t7 + itf + ari + aw. Lte + a/e or a#e ; ^r + us + a/ ; 
a^-hws + fye or ive + ly ; iis(e) ; aS/ Ji's, m^, jper4-(e) ; 
us(e)+ful or ful + ly or Zess or less + It/ ; usti+al or a/ 
or er or i + ous. 

Helps for the PupiL l Abuse, to wse wrongly. * Usury, now, un- 

lawful charge for the use of money. 

Vil,* Vis, (vey, vie, view), from vi tie re, vi stis, to see. 

E, pro + vid + ew or ew^ + ly or e^ce ; pro + ttfi + ew^ -h (i)r// 
or ent + (\)al + ly ; pru(=pro) + d(=vitt) + ent l or ew0 or 
ent + ly ; j^r, sur + vey ; pur + vey + or or awce; sur + r< ij 
+ or or or -{-ship. Vis + age* or iow or ion + ary or life or 
ibl + y or or ; a^ r^ super + r/s(e) ; ad + via + able s or </#/ 
+ we^ or ed -\-ness or er ; pro, re, super + vis + ion ; ad + 
vic(e); view;* ri<'ir + er or less ; re + rictv ; re+rinr+er. 

From the derivative vis i ^ re, vis i &z ^/s, we get r/s// : 
risit + or 5 or a;^ ; risifnt + io/i ; re + risit ; ;*6? f rittitat -f 

Helps for the Pupil. : l*rudent, foreseeing and wise in the KM of 
means. * Visage, the face, the foo&. * Advisable, seen to be the 
to do. 4 7i'ew, that seera. * Visitor, one who goes to C6. 

Viv,* (vi), from rfu e re, rtc tits, to live. 

Viv + id or acious or ac + ity ; re, sur + r4v(e) ; 
4-? or al + ist; sur + viv + al or or; -vi + and + s:* COH + 

viv + (\)al or (i 

48 Word-Building. 

From the derivatives vita Us and victudlis, we pot rit 
+ al or al + s or a + ly or 0Z 4 //y / victu + al + s. From the 
derivative vivified re, vivified tus, we uet riri+fy; 
vivi + ft cat + ion ; re 4- rivi +/ty ; re 4- ttfvi -\-ficat -f tow. 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Viands, tilings to live on ; now, only food. 

Voc 5 * (vote, voiv), from vo&, roc /s, voice. 

Voc + al or al + ist or al + ize or al+iz + at + ion ; < j </:ti, 
uni 4- voc 4- ^ ; foc(e) ; vot c(e) + tes ; ro tr -f ^/. 

From the derivative verb vo ^a re, vo cd tus, to call, we get 
voca -\-ble 1 or bul + ary ; 2 vocat + ion* or V0 ; rom-lt ; 
roach 4- 0r / r^, ^r 4- ^ 4 roc 4 /0 or abl + y ; con, e, in, 
pro, re + rok(e); * a, con, cqui, in, pro, re + voc<it+ion; 
ad 4 voca + cy ; ad, cqui 4 vocat(e) . From vo cif e rd re, 
vo cif e rd tus, we get voci +fer + ous or ous 4 ly J rod + 
ferat + ion or (e). fr 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Vocable, a name, a word. 2 Vocabulary, a 
7is, or collection, of vocables. * Vocation, calling, profession. 4 Avo- 
cation, a calling away, or a diversion, from one's vocation. * Vocif- 
erate, to speaA; loudly. 


Graph,* from grdphein, to write. 

Graph 4- ic or ic + al + ly or ^; aw/0 (autos, one's own), 
K^o (lithos, stone) , photo (pJios, photos, "light), tele (at a 
distance) 4 graph; bio (bios, life), #00 (#0, earth), lit ho, 
ortho (orthos, correct), photo, steno (stenos, narrow), tele, 
topo (topos, place), typo (tupos, iy\w)+yi'ui>h + y ; historio 

Elementary English. 49 

(history), lexico (lexicon), topo, t ypo + graph + er ; tele + 
graph + ic or ist or er; typo -f graph -f ic or ie -f a/. 

Logti, from logos, a word, speech, science, reason. 
Zogr -f ic or /c -f / or ic 4- 7 -h ly or tc + i n ; log -f arithms 

(arithmos, number) ; #wa, /?o, fo'o, chrono (chronos, tin 
concho (conche, shell), tfrm? (doxa, praise), entomo (entoma, 
insects), e/t/w0 (etymon, source), <w, $re^a (genos, birth), 
#00, mytho (muthos, fable), ornitho (ornis, ornithos, bird), 
patho (pathos, suffering), phreno (phren, mind), phraseo, 
(phrasis, diction), physio (phusis, nature), philo (philos, 
loved), psycho, (psuche, soul), tauto (the same), techn 
(tcchne, art), theo (theos, God), toxico (toxicon, poison), 2^00 
(zoon, animal) + log + y j ana, bio, chrono, etymo, genea, gco, 
mytho, ornitho, patho, phreno, physio, philo, psycho, tauto, 
theo, zoo + log + ic 4- al or ic + al + ly ; log(o) + mach -f y 
(strife) ; syl + log + ism ; ana, apo, cata, deca (teu), dia, ec 9 
epi, mono, pro + logu(o). 

Uleter,* Hetr, from metron, measure. 

Meter ; anemo (anernos, wind), baro (baros, weight), did. 
gaso (gas), hexa (hex, six), hydro (liudor, water), penta 
(five), peri, ther mo (thermos, heat) + mcfrr : Hirfr + ic or ic 
+ al; geo, sym, trigono (tri+gonia, angle) + metr + y. 

Phil,* Philo, from philos, a friend or a lover. 

P/il + anthrop (anthropos, man) +y or anthrop + t^; ;>//// 
-fadelph (adelphos, brother) +ta;t or adelph-f (ia) ; ji/*f/ + 
harmon (harmonia, harmony) +ic ; ;>/*// + log+y or Jo^r 
4-t^; j^/i^o-hsoph (sophia, wisdom) -her or soph-fy or 
soph -h ^ or soph -h ic -f aZ or soph + ize. 

BO ll vd-Building. 



Cera, Cret, (crc), from cernere, cretus, to SPO, to sift, to 
distinguish, to separate. 

Con, dis + <('! H ; dis + cern + er or ible or w/// : de + 
cre(e) ; 56 4- ere -f cy. Dis, in 4- dis 4- cw(v)f ; ,*e f crd ; ' 5e 
4- cret -f 7y or ive or ^/'// ; a ex, se -f rrrf -h ion ; 3 e + t-rct 4- fw 
or (c) : dis + rwt + iun or i<m + al or ion + al + ly. 

From the derivative a'/- ///*. \vc liuvc wrt + ain* or rt/w-f 
7^ or uin + ty. From cer 7//*i c re, cer tf(/'i m ^w>. wt- h;i\ c 
1-1- ft i :-/// : wrti +j?cftf + ion or 

Helps for the Pupil. J Secret, separated and hidden. * 
('rii:iiially ;i private clerk, one inirusird with secrets. * Secretion, the 
flftf of secreting, that separated from tin- liluml and made into nc\v sul>- 
stances. 4 Certain, used when one has si/^ the matti-r thoroughly. 

t lain. 4 'la ma I . (claini), from da ma, re, da uni fits, to call, 
to cry out. 

Clam + or 1 or or + ous or or + ous + ness; cftihn :~ <-hiini 
+ ant; ttn,vn+re+dain*+ed; re + claim -{-able ; ac,<l<'. 
dis, ex, pro, re + <'l<ihn ; de, dis, ex, pro + claun+er ; ac, 
de, ex, pro 4- da tn at -\- ion ; de, ex 4- damat 4- ory. 

Helps for the Pupil. * Clamor, a noisy cry. - Claim. t. f'/amnul as 
a right. 

4 I :nis. (dos) 9 (CIucl, 4 'I u*. in conipouiKls), from da fide re, 
dausus, to shut. 

Claus(e).' Con, ex, in, pre, 8e + dttd(v). 
* These not in tin- l(-^nit>' Li>i. 

Elementary ////////*//. 51 

con, c.<\ in, se + clus + ion or ive ; in -f con -f clus + ive ; 
clot* -\-ure or et ; c7o.s(e) ; 3 elos(o)+ly or /jm; en, in + clos 
+ ure or (e). 

Knm tiic derivative clam tr urn,, we get r/oi*f + </\ 
, cloist + er + ul. 

Helps for the Pupil. * Clause, a portion of the sentence shut off 

1'nmi the rest, by itself. ' 2 (7/0se, to 

Fleet, Flex, Flcxur, from flee te re, flex us, to bend. 

De, in, re -{-fleet; de, in, re + fleet + ion ; 1 re + fleet + or 
or ive or ivc + ness. Flex -{-He or ion or or or Me or ///// 
+ ity ; dream, re + flex; in, re+flex + ible ^ 

Helps for the Pupil. Reflection, the turning (metaphorical ?) of t| 
upon itself. 

Flu, Flux, from flu e re, flux us, to flow. 

/<Yff(e) r flu + enf 1 or ^cy or fe? or id+ity ; ///*. 

e/, honey) +fl,u + ent or e^c'e; in+flu + ence* or 
; super+fiu + ous* or ous + ly or *Yy. Flux; con, 
ef, in, re-}- flux; flux + ion+ de+fln.r + ion. 

From the derivative ^^c ^ a re, fluctudtus, we havr 
fluctiiat + ion or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. * Flue, a passage for the smoke to ^10 
throuyh. - Fluent, flowing ; applied to a speaker, is it metaphorical ? 
3 Influence, a power conceived as flowing from a person or tiling and 
affecting a not her. * Superfluous, overflowing. 

Greg, (f/reyi), from grex, gregis, flock. 

<; *<'(/ + (i ri + ous l or 

2 or 0ws + or 

From (/re ya re, ^/re ^ ^ws, to collect into a flock, we have 


".'/. M + f/rcyiit + ioH or () ; con + </f<wtt '> in or imi+al 
or /<>// f-/// -: /A/ or ion+al + ism or (r). 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Gregc -..(iaiin- in flocks or herds. 

J\f/regiou8, out <>J\ or above, the flock, <>r tin- 


I lab. Habit, (aft, habit it. It Hut ^ from ha be re, hub it us. 
to, hold, Keep. 

= 7f aft) -f fo ! or ^ + T/ ; e^, f/i x f f //> ( = hab) 4- /c ; 
4- //(i) + metit.* Habit ; :( 7/^ft*7 -h w^/e ; habit n al or 
ly QY ate ; ex, in, pro + Jtibit; ex, in, pro + hibit + ion ; ex 
+ hibit + or or ory or ion + er ; pro + hibit + ive or ory ; 
fte+bt 4 ( = hibit) ; de + bt + or. 

From ha bil i fas, ha bil i td tis, wo get a(=ha)bilU f // ; 
de + bilit( = habHit}+y; de + biiit(tt(=ltbiHt<it} +ion or 
(e). From the frequentative liab i td re, hab i td tus, to 
dwell, we get habita + ble or U + y or Me + ness; luilntnt ; 
habitat +ionj co, in + habit; in + habit + ant or able; co 
-f habitat 4- 

Helps for the Pupil. ' ^1&^, having pnwrr. - IldlrilimcnL tin- 
^, called dress. * Habit, the having, called custom, called dress al><. 
, that due another, /t#d aM>ay /row him that owes. 

Her, Hex, from herere 9 hcesus, 1o stick. 

^4^7, co, in + her(e) ; J, co, in + her + ent or cwcc or 
, co + hes+ion or ^e or ive + ness. 

Knnn the frequentative has ltd re, hwsitdtus,WQ have 
ancy ; l hesitat + ion or (e) ; un -\-hcsitat-\- in<j or 

Helps for the Pupil. l Hesitancy, \ he dickiny \';^\ in <loult. 

/>'//////>//. :,;; 

, Nex, from nectere, nexus, to hind or tie. 

Con, (Us 4- con 4- nect ; con 4- necf 4- to/& or ive or erf or erf 
4- l\i ; rf/s 4- con -\- nect 4- /on or erf or erf 4- ly. An \ // <./ .- con 
4- we* 4- tVw; an 4- MCJOS 4-0/4- Wtt or 0/ 4- tow 4- 1st. 

Scan, Scans, (Sccml, Seen*, (scent), in compounds), from 
.SCVM/ tic re, scan sus, to climb, to pass. 

Sr<t n . Sfft it s 4- ion. 1 A , de, con 4- rfe, tra n ><v n ft ; a, 

</r -sr<'it(l + ant ; a + scend + ency ; tran + scend + ent or 

ent + al or ent + al + ism. A, con + de, de + scens + ion ; a, 
de + scent. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Scansion, reading of poetry so as to mark 

the fir I. 

Setl, Scss, (see, sid, sidtt, siz), from se dere, ses sus. to sit. 
Sfft 4- ent 4- wr^ or ent 4- ari + ness; scd(i) 4- mew^ f or ;//< // / 
+ ary; super -\-sed(o)\ see;* pre, re, sub + #id(v); pre,re + 
sid 4- ent ; in 4- sid 4- (i)o^s or (i)ous 4- wess ; sub 4- **rl 4- (i) 
ar^; as + sidu + ous* or ity ; re + sidu(e); re + sidu + ari/. 
Sess 4- ion or f ow 4- al ; as, (pos), pre 4- (pos) 4- sess ; (pos) 4- 
sess + ion or ive or or; as + scss + ment or or; 4 0s4-**X e )- ft 
Helps for the Pupil. l Sediment, tliat which has settled to the bot- 
tom : aits there, as it were. 2 /See, the searf, or jurisdiction, of a bisliop. 
" .{**/</ nous, sitting intent upon, attentive. 4 Assessor, originally, one 
who xat beside the judge. 6 Assize, a sitting, or session, of the court. 


Serv, Scrvit, (servi, serf), from ser // r<% >v/- r/' ///>. to serve, 
he a slave to. 

S<*rv(e) ; serv + ant or er or ^e or ice + able or f'fe or V/4- 
?7// or ile + ly ; de + serv + ing or ing -{-In or erf or ed + ly or 
(e) ; fw/s, sub + 8erv(o) ; sub + servi + ent or ent + ly or 
serf+dom. ticrcit + or or ude. 

54 IIW-/////7///////. 

sitfii, from siy num. a sisrn. 

,s/f/u y siy it- 4- tf or 7 4- ize or rtZ 4- ly < >r <7. 

From the derivative */// //</ ;v, */// w/ /KX, to set a mark, or 
seal, we have r/s, cow, counter, de, re + siy it ; re + siyn + ed 
or ed + ly ; de + siyn + er or erf or ed + ly ; as, con + siyn + 
mcnt or er oree; un + de, under + siy n+ed; as, de, rei- 
si</n (it 4- /0M ; siy it (ttu r(e). From sig nif i cd re, siy nif i- 
cd tus, we get siy HI +fy or fie + ant or jic + ance or jicat + 
ion ; in 4- siy it i +fic 4- ant or fie 4- fltttfe. 

Ten, Tent, (tin,tintt, tain^ from tenerc, 1<-n tus, to liold. 

Ti'ii + able or acious or ac + ity or 7 or ant + ry or (e) 
we^ or e y 1 w^ 4- ten 4- tf#/e or aw 4- erf ; #e/i 4- ure ; Ih'ti 4- 
ton+ant or ancy J coun, main, sus + ten + ance ; abs, con, 
in 4- cow, jyer, tm 4-j^er 4- tin 4- ew^ or ence ; con 4- tin a 4- a/ or 
al + ly or rt'Mce or lY^; con, re + thnt(u) ; fe, ap+per, con, 
de, enter, iiniin, ob, per, re, sus + tin. Con, dis 4- con 4- 
fenf; con + tent + ment or 5; dis + con + tent -{-ment or erf. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Tenet, a doctrine 7ie/d to. 

Tribut, from t rib u e re, tri bu tus, to give. 

Tribut(e) ; tribut 4- ary ; at, con, dis, re 4- dis 4- tribut (e) ; 
atf, cow, dis, re, re + dis + ti'ibnt + ion ; at, con, dis + tribut 
+ able or ive ; re + tribut + ive. 

Vine, Vict, (vinci), from vin ee re, vie tus, to conquer. 

Con, e, pro 4- vinc(e) ; ! in 4- riitc -f- //>/e or f6i7 4- ^// or i^Z 
H-yy pr o-r vinci + al* or al + ism. Con, e-rvict ; con, e + 
vict + ion j vict + or or or + y or or4-(i)ows. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Province, a conquered territory, a <li>fn'H or 
department. 2 Provincial, pertaining to a province, hcnee not national 
or cosmopolitan ; a term of reproach. 

LESBOS \ \1.\. 

To the Teacher. A I in SO many yiggMkmfl 1mm ,, s j n the les- 

sons under " Klnnentary Kntflish." the. trarhrr max 
we are to offer him no more. Hut, if allowed, \\v would emph.-i 
those already mad< especially that. <>ne n-latin^ to the im-laphor 
086 of words. The Helps for the Pupil will he continued. hut will 
heroin.- morr mrau'er as we see thai tin- pupil i- mil -I'owin- the need 
of them. 

We jjfive the Latin roots and then the (in-ek. and follow hoth with 
the An^lo-Saxon the Koots Additional. 

Apcr, Apcrtiir, from a^ c ri re, ft JH'T tits, to open. 

Art, (arti, <>rt), from ars, artix, skill, art, mctliod. 

Art; art + fitl 1 orful + /t/ or fu1+ nrss or lest or A' 
or hsx + ncxx or i*l or ist+ic or i*l + ir + at or 
ly or (is) (Fr.) + rt/*/ a /+//<? -h(i)^/ 3 or 
fie -h (i)al 4- iVy or ^c + cr or //r(r) ; /// f r/^ ; /// -f i-rt f /// i r 
ness or (in) (L.). 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Artful, full of ov/ //// *///. i rirky. - .1 / 
make a fine distinction hetweeii ttrtixt and artixan. * Arti m ticin/, 
opposed to natural. 

And, Audit, (audi, edi, ey. r/M, from an <lire,au<li f 
to hear. 

A ud+ (/>/<' or ibl + y or //>/r 4- //r,sx ; /// -f aud + iblc or i* 
or i'Si7 + 17// ; audi + ence ; di's -f ob, ob + edi + ent or 


/// or >//.v + <//>, o/Hr//: 1 nb + <>is \-an<; . Attait ;* 

<tn<lit \ <>r or (ir + x/ti/i or o/-// or or/ + (urn) 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 7>/W/r//. die mav </;////>///. or rtf/ta i com- 
ply, with UK' command heard. * AwliL a hniri/ig. ;lll( l so an e.nit/timt- 
of account*. 

\ni\ in !///, or/), from n/f ruin, srold. 

Aur /'<; aur(e)+dte or ^/(c) 1 (diininutivc); mtri -\-fcr 
+ ous;* ori + <>l 3 (diminutive); 

Helps for the Pupil. l Aureole, a golden halo. 2 Auriferous, gold- 
bearing. * Oriel, a recess, or window, gilded with #o/d. 4 Orinlc what 
is the bird's coZor 

Bat, from bat ere, popular form of batdercj to liirht. to 

+ment ; 

or (te?* or te/'H-^ or tal+f(m; cum + bat; com + bat 
+ ant or ive or ive + ness. 

I5H . see A.-S. list below. 

4 a ii. < 'a ill . (cent), from CIH e re, can, ^/es, to 

Can- H- or 4- o w or or 4- 0ws 4- ^/ex.v ; ftc 4- cent. 1 
From the frequentative m?& ^ re, crn/ /^ ///x, we have 1 
cant;* cant + (i)cle or (o) (It.) ; (Zes, re -{-cant; re + cant at 
4- fo/i ; 3 jt?re 4- cenf 4- or ; chant ; chant 4- cr or /// or ( i)r/frr 
(claiTy clear) ; e/i 4- chant ; en + chant 4- er or r 4- 0ss or mi'nt.* 
From the derivative accentudre, ac centu dtus, conu- r^- 
\-centu-\-al y ac + centuat -\- ion or (c). 

Helps for the Pupil. l Accent, the ^one, /;//rA, x//r.s-x of th 
8 Cant, affected, hypocritical goodness uttcrin- itself in a xhnj-xong 
tone. * Recantation, the charm reversed, a declaration retracting a 
former one. 4 Enchantment, songs of sorcery. 

/,'//////>//. 57 


Cupif , 'i/>if, r*/m-, <-<i/>t. <-h(ttt. <-<itt . from c<f /n/f, c<i p it is, 
the head. 

l or al + ist or or (olj ' ///, < , 

/ ; vre 4- c*/n -f 01^ or ou# + /// ; prc + dpi < ( e) ; r< f y>^ i 
or tn'ti + rt/; chatt+el+8* or el+ism ; witt + h'.* 

From the derivative capitulum conic <'ai>it+u1-\-ur or 
ul + ary; rh<if>f + er. From the dim. r f /j) i //// n/it. comes 
chfi/tit + er. From the verb capit H hi r<\ <-<t )>if ti hi ' 
derived from the diminutive nipihihnn. come <-fij>itu/(tt + 
IUH ' or (e) ; re + cajritulat + iQn or (e). 8 Froni the deriva- 
tives r/^ r7^/> / /^' /v. /// a//, i hi ///>-, and [trw dp i hi r<\ /;/</. 
c-//v /' /^ ^s, come de + capitat+ ion or (e) ; pre + cipit + tint 
or ancy ; pre+eipUat+ton* or (e). 8 

Helps for the Pupil. ' ( 1 apit<tl-=1o*x of lend, or life, when 
with m'we or punishment ;=the city which is tin 1 sr;il <!' 
the Aa^ of the state ; money invested, in distinct inn from the income 
derived from it. * Capitol, from Capitolinn*, tlie hill on which the 
temple of Jupiter at Rome was built. s Chattels, invent mt- at* >t' al: 
any kind, personal or real. 4 Cattle, investments in lire xtnck t chidly 
borine. * Capitulation, surrender, the terms of which an .\\M 

as little heads or headings. * Recapitulate, to ^ro ore/' th of a 

discourse again. ''Precipitation, headlong haste. "Precipitate, to 
throw headfirst. 

Celer, from cler, quick. 

Celer + ity. 

From the derivative ac eel e rd re, ar ccl e ni ///*, to has- 
ten, come ac + celerat + ion or ive or ed or ing or (e). 

Commocl, see Mod below. 

58 II /'(/- />tu'/t/ijiy. 

< oimiiiin. xrr nun, first list 

4 oron. (<-rotrn, corof}, from co ro na,n crown. 

Coron + al or et ; crotrn ; crotrn + less ; corol + t(i\im.) 
-f (a) or 1 + ary. 1 

From the derivative corona re, corondtus, to crown, 
come cor on + cr ; 2 coronat 4- ion. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Corollary, something irivrn beyond what is 
due, as a garland; hence something additional, as an inference. 
9 Coroner, officer appointed by the crown. 

Corpus, torpor, (corps, cors, corpu), from corpus, cor- 
po ris, body. 

Corpus -{-de or cul + ar ; cor^s(e) ; eors + //7 <>r r/ ; cor- 
pn + lent or lent + ly or /eMce or lenc + y. Corpor+al l or 
al + ly or (t'l + ify. 

From the derivative adj. corpo re us, and verb cor po r ti- 
re, corpordtus, come corpore + al or al+ly or al+tty or 
lY^; iti + corpore-ral ; corporat + ion* or (e) ; iu + cor- 
porat+ionoi (e) ; corporat(o) + ly, 

Helps for the Pupil. J CorparaL a noii-coininissiniird ofViccr SMFH-- 
times in charge of a small /^/// of ////'//. -Corporations consist each 
of two or more persons, or bodies, united for soim- purpose. 

Cred, Credit, (ere), from credere, credit its, to believe, 
trust to* 

Cred + ence or 0ra or^it<4-(i)eil4- 1 m Me or ibl + y or 
# or /ft/e -h w-c.s'.v ; cre(c) ^ ; y^/.s -f cr<>. + ai(/.* Credit ; 
credit -f or 3 or able or aft? + y or able -f M&JS ; ac, dis + end it ; 
dis + credit -f aft/e. 

From the derivative adj. credulus, we have cred+ul + 
ous or ul + ous + ly or ul + oux + ncss or 
ou& or ul + ous + ly or ul + ity. 

Helps for the Pupil. > 'W/-//////x. /,;/* that one is entitled to 
credit. - MixiTfttnf. /ni^c/ifrin;/ ln-ncc, in the . ers, viU. 

*-Crliir, I In- ant- trusted. 

I>at, from <ld re, da tits, to give, do, place, put, yield. 

ddt + ive* or (urn) or (a) (both L.) ; ante, mis, 

From the combinations of this verb with prepositions we 
get als + con -f d ; 3 ad+d; ad+d+end+(vm) or (a) (both 
L.) ; ad + dit + ion or ion + al or ive ; e + dit;* e + dit + ion 
or or or o/- + (i)^ or or + (\)al + ly or or + */>//>; 

tra+dU+ion;* tra+dit+ioii+al or / 
), sur + ren + d + er ; ren + d+ (ez) + (vous) ; T 
re + 6^;i + dit (e) ; #/v^ + it +kr. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Date, the given point of *tW. 2 Dative, the 
case used to express that to or /or which something is done. * Abscond, 
to place one's self in liidlmj. 4 Edit, to #i'ye forth. * Krfradifiim, the 
giving up, by one State to another, of an alleged criminal. * Tradi- 
tion, the giving, or luindin.i; down, across periods of time. 7 Rendez- 
vous, report or deliver yourself; then the j^/oce at which this is to be 


Dent, (denti, dun), from dens, dentis, tooth. 

DeHt + fd or /x/ or ixt + ry or (tt + cd ; fri + dent : denfi + 
/V'/V(e) (frirf/rc. to rub) ; r/r/w -j- efe + lion. * 
From the derivative dcn-titn*, tlie p. p. of /A'// tf/re, we 

From tlic derivative />/ ^-// /// r, /// ^A 1 // A/ ?U*, t> not-h. 
we havi' /// 4- fA j //^ ; /// -I- dv itf - un : ' in -\-<f<-nf<ff 4- A>//. 

Helps for the Pupil. ' D^mlr/ion. tlic flower so named from it^ 
jagged leaves, whose t-dirrs l.ok like row* of lion's teeth. Indenture 

60 II n/V/- /////A//. 

duplicates of contracts once had tlu ir edges notched so that they would 

tally with rarh t.tlu-r : tin- \\riling8, 80 iiotrhi-il, were callt-d M 

l>i, from <// rs. a day. 

/>/ or or nr f- /*/ : nn'ri(--iHi'<li) </* <tti or 

^-<// or ou+al + ltj : ///< // M//+ //// ; y/o>7 

: <jrti>/i( s-, lm\v nianv r) <// 

in '// /// ////' //> wt- L r 't <linrn +(d ; jo.urn + tir or 
or ul+ist or r//-f/- ; 3 

/ -Joitrn ; 80 joiirti -/ r. 

Helps for the Pupil. ' (Jnntitlinn t <>n h<r> > r /mint/ a '/"//. (> n 
. ilnily. - Journal. mic a d<n'/i/ tit tcx/>"/" . M /OlfflK V ^a- a A///'.s 

travel; meaning of both extended m>\f. 

lloinin. from f/oy// / JI//N, lord ; </o/;/ / //f/, lady. 

> in or ic + al or (o) or (e) (l><>th Sp.) ; 
(in Chaucer, etc.); <l<nn<tht : <l(im(c): <t<un ; 

+dam : fffim -f ,v( = r)^/; <i<mn\\i\ (Sp. ) . <hn'nn(\\\ 


From the derivative domi)niri. domindfas, we 
tlnmiit <<ntf nr pw; <lomi imt + ion or />/ <r (e);jt>r-h 

<i<nnin -\-itnt n 

Ilonii. ll<nnil. from r/o/- //^' /v. r/o/- //// ///s. to 

Dorm <!/// <*r <i,, r. DormU+W6 OT 

Fae, (fiH'i.jiri , from /;/ </ < .s. a larr or surfar. 

Poe(e) ; /tec ; tfo, //'. 9ur+/ae(e); y>/'-/ 

+/Icl-f (CS) ( L. ) Or 0/ 1 nr /// ^ /// nr r// | ////. 

Helps for the PupiL ' tfujjrrti' |.in- t<> the surface, 


Advanced A'/ /////'>//.- Cl 

Felu% from felix, felt cis, happy. 

Felic + ihj or it 4- 0?js or *7 -f ous + ly or iV -f ous -f w0ss ; 

in+f<'lic+ity or it + oif* or it 

From /e Z/c / tf# tfws, p.p. of /e /^ / # re, we get feliciftif 
+ ion or (o). 

Fcs, from fa te ri, fes sus, to own, acknowledge, manifest, 
show forth. 

/, pro +f ess; con+fess + or l or ion or ion + al or t-d 
or ed-\-/i/ ; pro+fess + or* or or + (i)Z or or -{-ship or tow or 
or ion + al + ly or erf or ed + ly. 

Helps for the Pupil. 2 Confessor, not the one co>//>.s.s//^/. but 7/f /// 
whom cunj'i'xxinii /x nxult'. I'mfvxxor, one who openly teaches, or shows 
fort/i. ;i science, ur hranch of learning. 


Form, from forma, fiirure, shape, appearance. 

rni'tn : fornt+dl or al + ly or ttl + isnr or til + ity or ?// 
(dim.) + (a) (L.) or nl + ary or nl + at + ion or Hl + afr : <lc 
nn + <'(/ or //// ; /// +form - + al or al + 1y or ttl+ity: 
-f form : tint +fnn f ////. 
Kmin for mfc tll8, the j>.|>. of the dcrival i\ c /)/r ///^' /v. we 
have fin-unit \-ion or //'". 'Fnun the eoinl)inations of /br- 
with prepositions, we have /v///, ///, /v, triuix+form ; 
\-f<n>in +able or abl + y or /V or //// ; ro//. ///,' J /v, /// 
+fonn<ff-r Inn : ///, /v +fonn+ cr ; in +forin +ititt ; re + 
foriHirf I //v- or 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Fnrinnlixin. lie- striri ml/n-rf>nce to forms 

nl 00reman68, Information^ kin\vlMlu r i rn-rivnl, and regard M! as 

'taliln ami //*//// In tin- 

62 Word-Builtf* . 

Tori, i/or//./orr). from /or //>, stroii-, powerful. 

/'or/: />>// + ; + (ess) (Fr.): forti+ff/ or /ii-<tt ) iu/i or 
tftttfe; /orr(,<) : f<n'<-(r)+ful or //// + /// or /''** or //// or 
ibl + y or ible + ness; en, rc + en+forc(u)\ en, 
/orr(e) + ///>/,/. 

From the derivative /or & r0j to strengthen, ire gel 

L- rum + fort : l rof/t i-fort + dblu or ttbl + y or /<- or / / ; 

Helps for the Pupil. What, -vrr l comforts, strengthens. ' J\ 
the putting forth of strcnyth. 

; 3 

Gcr, vc k *f. 4-<^iur. (f//.sY, f/istr.jcsfi, from ytrere, 
to hciir, or carry on, perform. 

<;/-r-f "//'/ or t(H</+irt'; 1 belli (/W/ /////, /^7//\ war), ?//() 
+ gre r -f- eut ; a m-|-flrer-f (iee) (L.). To//, ///, 
con, '//', in + <lt\ xi/</ + </<'i*f + i<i/i 4 or ire ; </i\ i/i 
ibit' or ihil + ity ; re + yist + er; re + yistr + ar or 
or y or ^/ -f /o// : ./>>/ : ,/rs/ 4- ^r or i;/// + ///. 

Yromges fir ?/ /// ///x. p.p. of //r>- /// // /^/ //. 
l<it + ion or o/v/ or (r). From the fre<jiu'iit;iti\r 
ges l<i ///x, we get </<'st<it + ion or <;///. From r./ agger u ///>-, 
p.p. of the derivative exay <jt'r ii n-. i lica| up. we get 
('.r + fty + f/t-ffff \-ian or tV0 or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Gerumlir, . A///-///// tin* iiaiuiv of a genuul. 
OF vi-rhnl noun. - Ili-lliyi-i'cut. ln-ariny irnr, tnrr/ik<. The rlmim: 
tilings " ,m- //o/v/r ii/tiirf. >-jarahMl. 4 Congestion, 


4.r an. <(/r<iin, <j<irn . from f//vf nnni. irniin, lllicr of \vood or 

(; run \-ary or wfe or ul + ar or ul + ate or nl + nt + ion or 
t70 ! or(g(i i OF -(i) f ror + dits; </t'tritt; 'at \-yrain;* 

f/fU'H - 9f "I" /'/. 

Advanced A'//////*-//. 63 

Helps for the Pupil. l irnmitf, a speckled stonr. full, as it were, 
of grains. 2 Orange, a ftarra, and hence grangers are fanners. *Ingrain, 
to dye with seed, grain, or with cochineal an insect resembling grain. 

<ro**, (gros, gro, groc), from gr6s sus, thick, fat, large. 

Gross ; yross + ly or wess ; en, in 4- gross ; l en + gross + 
ment ; grros 4- beak ; gro 4- grain, a ( = grain) ; gro + g ;* 

groc + er* or 

Helps for the Pupil. ] Engross, to write in Zan/e letters. 2 

of coarse grain or texture. 3 tfro^r Admiral Vernon, who 
wore grogram breeches and was called "Old Grog,'* had his sailors 
dilute their rum. The mixture they called grog. * Grocer, the word 
from the manner of selling by the gross. 

Iiitegr, see Tact, first list* 

Judic, Judicat, Judicatur, (judg), from ju di cd re 
(=jus + di cd re], ju di cd tus, to make known, or interpret, 
the law. 

Judic +(i)al or (\)al + ly or (\)ary or (i)ous l or (i)ous + ly 
or (i)ous + -ncf*s ; pre +judic + (i)al or (\)al + ly ; pre+jit- 
f//r(e); a judgement or (e) ; ju<1g(o) + sliip ; ad, pre + 
jt"tg(e). Judicat + ory or we; ad, j)n> +judicat+ ion or 
(e). Judicature). 

Helps for the Pupil. " Judicious, with good judgment. - Prejudice, 
t, im UK il without full data, and unfavorable. 

. /tni(/ti . from fingua, language, tongue. 
Lint/ ii + ul or /x^ or isf + ir or ist 4- ics ; ! langu 4- age. 

Helps for the Pupil. Linguistics, the science of languages 
their origin, growth, change. 


LESSON \\.\Ili. 

Major. (m a i/or), from nut, /or. greater, comparative of 
nus, great 

Major; Major + it y l or ship or gener + til ; mat/or; 
m a i/or + ship or al 4- ///. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Majority when dot i > <>nr oome i lii- 
majority? And what is the diHVivmv iM-twcm a //////o ///_// <>f \ 
and a plurality f 

Man. ]?Ian, (mn, main), from mane re, ttuin >//*. in sia\, 

Man -{-or or or + (i)a/; per + man + cut nr r///-f/// <>r 
n 4- ew/ ; ! re + JMM + ant ;* re-}- in a i n ; re + 
main + s or (d) (Fr.)+^*. MaHs+iu/i. ov-iun + r;i pr (e), 

Helps for the Pupil. l Immanent, ,*/<////////, <r ///'/7///t//. ///, or 
within. 2 Remnant, what remains over or after. 

THedic, from ////W / <//>, a physician. 

Medic + al or al + Iy or ////' or /// -h/// or /// -\-nMc. 
From the derivative met/ / rr/ r/. ///^/ / /Y/ ///>, t<> heal, 
or ////'/// ; nt<'<Hcat + ctl or /o// or /// or ( 

Met, Meil, Hc'iiiir, diu'<isttr>. from ntrtt ri. nun sits, fo 
measure, e>tiin;it<>. 

M<-f(i>). 1 Ih f iiH'ns + i*ui ;' it/t { incus 4- //// ; ///* -f 
meti8(u) ; //// itn'iis(e) + Iy or ne.vx. //// -f im-itstir + ahlc 
or abil + ity ; nt<'<isnr + (ihlf or <tl>l + y or /// or (<) : //// -f 
measur + ablc or '//// + // ; tn<'<tsitr(e)+lex* OT 

Helps for the Pupil. ' J/e/e, to measure out. * Dimension, the 
measure from side to H<I-. 

Advanced English. C5 

Mod, (modi), from m6dus, measure, manner, fashion. 

Mod(e) ; mod + el or el+er or al or ish or est 1 or est + y 
or est+ly or fc-f (um) (L.) or 0r^ 2 or ern + ly or ern + tie** 
or 0r/i + t*20 ; com 4- ///or/ 4- a'ty ; 3 corn 4- modi 4- OMS ; * /w 4- 
com + modi + ons or ous + ly; modi + ft/ or fi + er or /fc4- 
a/0 or j#ca 4- i'0?i. 

From moderdtus, p.p. of moderdri, to regulate, we 
have mode rat -{-or or ion; moderat (e) ; 6 moderdt(e) + ly 
or fte#. From moduldtus, p.p. of moduldriy derived 
from modulus, dim. of modus, we have modulat+iuu 
or (e). 8 From # com mo Ja re, ac com mo J ^w, we get ac 
4- com 4- modat 4- i'0w- or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Modest, within proper bounds or measure. 
2 Modern, as if from modo, now, the now or present fashion. * Com- 
modious, in measure, adapted to its use or purpose ; hence * commodity 
=what is adapted to use or convenience articles of commerce. 
* Moderate, to reduce to proper measure, to control. 6 Modulate, to fit 
or adapt the voice to that which it expresses. 

Par, (pair ,2> ire, peer), from par, /H r/s, equal. 

JPr; i><tr+if.y; dis+par + ity or w/0 or age + inrnf ; 
pair; 1 um( = non)+pire ;' pver ; peer + ess or less or 
less + ty or less + H CM or <7//^; 3 rv//w +peer. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 7W/\ Iwo things of a A-/nrf or sort, hence 
equal. * Umpire, wit hind peer or equal, supreme. s Peerage, the peers, 
e</Ka/a originally ; but now men of hnjh rank simply. 


Pand, Pan 9 Pa, (pac), from pdndere, pdnsus or 

ptissns, to spread, stop. 

jEfc 4- patid. Ex 4- pans 4- fVw or /^/7 4- //// or zVe or ive 4- ly 

66 II //v/- /;////,/// . 

or / A <T (o). Pass: JMISS -f- ////// or nl1 + y or <7/7# or 

f(=ayr)+^r > or0rorn^; 1 (ymss is j-iviixcd to the words 

00^'. /<//, wore?, port); com, en + com. snr, tres + imss: 

^nr + pass -\-abl < : //rx JHISS -fr ; )Htc(o) ; ^>f/r 

Helps for the Pupil. * Passenger (the n t-\< r-< , ni), .n- who passes 
or journeys. * Passing often = dyinj: the " Passing of Arthur." 

Pen, trompc&na, piinishinent. 

Pen + al or al + ty or awce. 

From the derivative ^ew f ^ re, to cause to repent , we get 
in n it -f ence or ^w^ or ent + 7^ or e?^ + (i)al or e^/ + (i)ary ; l 
or ence ; re + pent; re + pent + ant or ance. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Penitentiary, once a b-uildimj where peni- 
<-onf eased; now one where offenders are confined in 

Pict, Pictur, (painty piy) 9 from />/'// r/e re, pic tus, to paint. 

i'i</-}- ment. De+pict; pict+ori+al; )Hthtt : jKihtf 
+ er or ing. Fictur(o) ; pictur + esyue or esqne + ness or 

Plac, Placit, (pleas, plais, plead, plea), from ^l a cere, 
plac i tus, to 

/V/ 1 or /V-f /// or /V/+ //y/ ; /v>/// -f plac + oit or rW-f /// 
or e?^e or ency ; 2*leas(e) ; pleas + er or t'w^r or iny + Iy <>r 
ant or ant + ly or (Dit + ness or (tHf + ryor urc or nr + <tlilc 
or wr -f ^/^/ 4- // or wr H- rt/0 -f we55 ; co?// + />//* -f /iY or ance ; 
j>fit/ ; plead + er or /////-f*; pica* 

I-' roin the allied verh />/// r//' /v, />/// /v/ ///x, we ( iret pl<i< <i 
////- or /// + // 'i- ///r !//// -f //// ; i>lcat + wn or/Vor(<). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' /'A/r/W. gentle, |M-,-i-i-rul IMM-JUI>U 
* Plea, a pleading which 6X00060, 

Advanced /,'//////>//. 67 

Plen, (pleni), from pie nus, full. 

Plen + ary ; re+plen+ish or ish + ment or ish + er; 
pleni + tude or potent (see below) or potent + (\)ary. 

From the derivative noun pleti i tas, plenty, we get plent 
-f//; plenti +ful or fnl + ly or ful+ness ; plente + ous or 
ous + ly or ous + ness. From the kindred verb pie re, to fill, 
come com, 1 sup*+ple + ment or ment + ary; im+ple + 
ment ; 3 com, $up+i>lu. 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Complement, that which fills out or com- 
, pletes, as one hemisphere another ; 2 supplement, an addition only. 
3 Implement, means for fulfilling or accomplishing, an instrument. 

Plum, (ptttnti), from pluma, a feather. 

flutn(e) ; jtfunt +y or //e or ?</c or ery; plum(e) + less 
or ?e^ ; plumi + ger + ous. 

Plumb, (pliunbi), from plum bum, lead. 

Plumb; 1 jtfiunb + cr* or ^/ f // or />/// or ic or (e)ous or 
(e)?i or lin(e) or mJ(e) ; plumbi+fer + ous; plum(m) 

Helps for the Pupil. What are a ! plumb and a s plummet made 
of, and what metal does the 2 plumber handle? 

Pot, I 'ola I. (pois}, from i><> tn re, }>o td tus, to drink. 

Pot ; ! pot + ion or able or able + ness ; j>ot(i) -t-er or le or 
erf/ ; pois 4- on 2 or o?i + ous or o^ + ^/*. Pot at + ion or 0/77 ; 
com +potat -f low or or. 

Helps for the Pupil. What must a ! pot have been used for in 
order to get its name, and in what form must * poison have been taken? 

Potent, (potenc),ihe present part, root of pos stun (=potis + 
sitm), pds se, to be able. 

Potent; potent + (\)al or (i)al + ly or (i)al+ itij ; im + 

68 H 

onnti+potriif ; <nnni \ pott /*/{- /// ; i>of<>n.c + y ; 
itn + potenc + y or (e) : <nnni j>of< nr(> \. From the / 
of ; ' we get p08* + Me or iM + y or j>oss + ibil+ //// ; 

or ibl+y or ibil + ity. 


Prehend, Prelicns, (pregn, prent, pris, priz\ from 
/>re // < // </r / / . />re //<'// >//>-. to seize, lay hold of. 

Ap l y com, 9 re+prehend; im+pwf/H -{-able or (tltl + y or 
tibif+ifi/; ap+ prent + ice or ice + *1n p. Ap, com, re + 
preliens + ion or ive or ible or ibl + y ; prehens+ilc ; <//>, 
com, enter, sur+pris(e) ; op, re, sur+pris + al; pris + vn 
or on -f cr ; priz(o). 

Helps for the Pupil. Bring out clearly the difference between 
1 apprehend and 2 comprehend. 

run;:. Punct, Punctur, (poign, punch, point), from 
re,punctus,to sting, prick, point. 

1'tiny + ent or ency ; ex+pung(e) ; ! poign-}- ant or 0*1 

or ?^y. Com+punct + ion* or (i)o//< ; 
point; point + er or edf or ed+ly or ed+ness or 

From punctum, point, we get pum-fit + al* or al + Iy or 
al + ity. From the diniiiiutivc /tunrtilln (S]>.), we get 
|HfltCt4*i7+(i)<W*Ort7+(i)0ttt + fl6M. Frnm the (lcriv;ili\c 
verb punctudre, punctudtus, we get pHn<'tu<tt + ion 

Helps for the Pupil. l Expv ////'. 1" prick (ut. TM * compunction, 
what i< iiK-taphorically n-jin-M-nird a- /irirkingf * Punctual, on tin- 
very |XH>^ of time. What is it to 4 punctuate? 

Advanced EnyU.xh. 69 

Quadr, (quadru, quadri, quart, quir, quatr, qua t), from 
quad rtts, ji square, from qudttu or, four. 

Ouaar + ant or ant + al or enni + al or oon;* quadr + 
angul(angulus, angle) + ar or ^/////(e) ; quudru+ped or 
ped+al or pie or plexj quadri + later (lotus, lateris, side) 
4- ft/; quart; quart + er or er + ly or etfte or w or (o) (It.) ; 
quir(e) ; a quatr + <iin : 3 quat + ern + ary or ern + ion. 

From the derivative $w#J r# re, #w^ rrf tfws, we have 
quadrat; 4 quadrat + ic or tc'5 ; 6 quadratur(e) ; s(=es 

^ or 

Helps for the Pupil. l Quadroon, the black blood only one fourth. 
- Quire, sheets of paper packed four (now twenty-four) together. 3 Quat- 
rain, a stanza of four lines, or verses. 4 Quadrat (quad.), a square 
block of type-metal used in spacing. 5 Quadratics, that branch of 
algebra in which the highest power of x, y, etc., is a square. * Quarry, 
the place where stones are dug and squared. 

Quant, (quanti), from qudn fits, how much ? 

Quant 4- (um) (L.) OY ity ; quanti +fy or ficat -\-ion. 
From qudn ti tas, quan ti td tis, come quantit+ive or ive 

+ ty j quanti tat + ive or ive -\- ly. 

, (quir, quest), from qucerere, quce situs, to 
seek, search lor, ask, inquire. 

otter { // or ist ; con + qucr ; l con 4- quer 4- or or a&fo ; ac, 
in, re + ; ac, re + qnir(e) + went ; ac, re + quir + 
able; in + quir + er or tw^r or ing + ly or y or (e). -4c, rf/5, a 
m, re + qnisit ion; ex? per, re + qttisitu*) ; ac, in + quisit 
4- iw or tVe -f ness ; in 4- qttisit 4- or or or/ -f al : quest ; con, 
in, re -{-quest: quest + ion or ion -{-able or ion + able + ness 
or ion 4- fes$ or or * or or 4- ship. 

;o Word-Building. 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Cnin/m>r. t<> *"'/,- and .7/7/7? by force. /)/,<?- 
quisition, & ae&rcliiinj inwttiffdtion, 3 JExquisit<\ souf/hf out carefully ; 
Iu> nee, of surpassing quality. 4 Questor, a receiver <>!' taxes at Ronu . 

. Quicl, (quit, cot/), from qui es ce re, qui 6 t */.s, to n^t, 
repose, release, 

o/fi +esc + ent or ent + ly or ence ; ac + qui + esc + ent or 
or esc(e). 1 Otiicf ; <fuiet + ly or ness or ?fo or t^ or 
t'sw y <?15 4- v " *V'^ : '//.s* -f q n iet 4- ?c?e ; </ /^ /7 3 (ad j . ) : </ // *7(e) ; 
quit + claiiH : coy ;* coy + ly or ness or ish or ish + ness. 

From the derivative verb #zn0 are, to calm, to quiet. \\c 
get quit 3 (verb) ; quif(t) -\-ance ; ac + qtiit; ac + quit(t) 4- 
a^ or ance ; re 4- quit(e) ',* re + quit 4- aZ. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Acquiesce, to res satisfied. * Quit (adj.), 
freed from; * quit (verb), to free from, to leave. *Coy, bashful, retired. 
* Requite, to return like for like. 


Radi, (raj/), from r<t di les, a ray. 

Itadi + al or (us) (L.) ; raj// ray + less. 

From the derivative ra rff r^, ra di a tus, we get r<?i 4- 
aw^ or ant + ly or ance ; radiat + ion or (e) ; ir + ra<li<tt 
ion or a# or (e). 

Rap, Rapt, Raptur, (rav,rept} 9 from rap ere, 
to seize, snatch, hurry away* 

Rap + id or id + ly or id + ity or W4-s or tV&0 or acious or 
acious 4- ?y or ae 4- iVy ; rav -f ^c or ^?i or en 4- 0w$ or en 4- 0ws 
4-/y or t'wtf 1 or tWi or ish + er or ish-}- ing or ish + ment. 
Rapt; sur 4- re/>f H- tV( = ic) 4- (i)ows a or it 4- (i)ows 4- ty. Rap- 
tur(e) j a raptur -f- ow or ow^ 4- ty ; en 4- raptur(e), 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Ravine^ H yuryv cut out by ruahiny Hoods. 

Advanced English. 71 

2 Surreptitious, done stealthily and with violence. One in s rapture is 
caught up and hurried aivay in thought and feeling. 

Rat, (rati, reas), from re ri, rd tus, to think, suppose, calcu- 
late, fix, settle. 

Rat (e) ; * over, under + rat(e) ; rat + able or abl + y or 
w0ss or tow or (io) (L. ) or ?ow 4- al or tow + al + ly or tow 
ize or ion + al+ist or ion + al + ist + ic or tow 4- / 4- 
t'sw or tow 4- al 4- ^y ; rail +fy 2 or /& 4- 0r or float -f tow ; 
4- on 3 or ow 4- 0r or ow 4- ing or 0tt 4- ^>fe 4 or on 4- a5? 4- y or 
4- able 4- 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Hate, the fixed proportion. 2 Ratify, to 
sanction, approve. 3 Reason, the intellectual faculty which thinks, con- 
cludes. * Reasonable, having reason, agreeable to the reason. 

Reg, Reef, (ro//, r/gr, regri, ress, recti], from regere, 
rc tus, to rule, direct, arrange. 

1 or al + ly or al -\-ity or en/ or 0ttc# or tow y swr 
; t w 4- sur + g 4- ew/ or ency ; 2 sou + r(=re</) 
+ ce; 3 re + sou + r + ce; re + al+(m) ; roy + al or al + ty 
or al + ist ; cor, in + cor + rig + ible* or ible + ness or iftt7 + 
t7# ; regi + men* or mew/ or ment + al or ct^(e). (7or, r/7, 
e + rect; cor, di, e, in + sur, re + sur+rect + ion; cor, di, 
e 4- reef 4- or or tVe or Zy or w^55 ; red 4- or or or 4- ate or or// ; 
di + rect + ory or or 4- ate; d( = di) +ress;* d + ress + y; 
ad + d, re + d + ress ; recti 4- tude or fy or fi 4- er or 
or /rc 4- tow. 

From the derivative reg nd re, we got wyn + ant or 
reign. From the derivative noun reg u la, we get regul 4- 
ar or ar 4- ly or r 4- ity ; ir 4- regr?^ 4- ar or ar 4- ly or r 4- tYy ; 
rtil + er or t'^r/ or (e). From r0 t o; w /a tus, p.p. of ra/ 1 Id re, 
we get regulat + ion or tVe or or or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Regal, pertaining to the king, the ruler. 

72 11 ord-Buildii 

* Insurgency the directing, or taking one's way, may be /row under. 

* Source, the rise or origin or rause of anything. 4 Corrigible, iliat 
may be e{ aright or mrrrrtcd. * Regimen, the j>re>eribed /?//<> . as of 

/>ress, to arrange in frwf, to arrange one's clothes. 

Ki<l. Ki*. //<//>, from ridtre, risus, to mock, to laimli. to 


Z)e 4- Hrl(e) ; de + rid + er; ridi + cute or cul + ous. 
or ibil + ity or ibl + y ; de + ris + ion or u;0 or ive + ly or 

Riv, from r/ ///>-. a stream : ///></. a bank, shore. 

/; / r -h er or wZ or Z 4- ry; ! cor, o w/ -h Hv 4- fl? ; H v 4- ul+ et. 

From the derivatives of rivus, we get de + riv + able or aW 
4- y or (e) ; de 4- rivat 4- ^'ow or w or tve 4- /# ; r 4- rv 4- fl J 
or (e).' 

Helps for the Pupil. l Rivalry why. originally, between those on 
opposite banks of a river? 2 Arrive t originally, to reach the shore 
what, now ? 

, Rogat, from ro f/^ /T. ro gd tus, to ask, question, solicit* 

Ar + rog + ant* or ant + ly or awce or awcy. J^, ar, de, 
inter, sur + ro(/at(?)-,* ab, de, inter, pro, 9 super *+e + n>- 
ion; de, inter + rogat + ory ; inter, pre + rot/af \ //v. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Arrogant, /V,////////# for one's self n>\v. 
mort than one's due. * Surrogate, a substitute, an officer \vlm }n -ides 
over the probate of Mu7/. * Prorogation, the ending of a session < -I 
liament and t he postponing of its business. 4 Supererogation. 
than t/w/y require*. 

Advanced English. 73 

Rupt, Ruptur, (rout, rut) 9 from ////// pe re, rup tus, to 
break, destroy, burst. 

Ab, bank 1 (bench), cor, inter + rupt ; cor, dis, e, inter, ir 
4- rupt 4- ion ; ab 4- rupt + 1/ or ness ; cor 4- rupt 4- ly or ness 
or er or ible or ibl + y or ibil + ity or ible + ness ; in + cor + 
rupt 4- y or wess or ible or /W 4- y ; e, ir 4- 1* *fp 4- f w ; inter, 
un 4- iw-for 4- rw/tf 4- ed or eo? 4- ly ; fowi 4- rw^f 4- cy ; ro ut ; a 
e); 3 rout + ine; rut. Huptur(o). 

Helps for the PupiL 1 Bankrupt, one unable^ pay his debts. At 
Florence, it is said, the bankrupt had his bench (i.e., money table) 
broken (Webster). 2 Rout, the lines of the army broken. 3 Route, 
broken, or cut through. 

Sal, from sal 9 sd Us, salt. 

; sal + ine or ry or ad; sal(t)+er or /sA or ness 
or Zm or petr(o) (see Lesson XLIIL). 

From the derivative sa li re, sal sus, we get sauc+y or 
i 4- Zy or f -f ness or er or (e) ; saus -f a^e. 

Sal, Salt, (salt, sili, sail, suit, sault), from sa li re, sdl 
to leap, rush, issue suddenly forth. 

sal 4- (mon) ; * s/i 4- ent a or ^7i^ 4- ly / 
4- ent or ewce ; as 4- ^ / 5 4- st7 4- w^ or able ; de 4- SM/ 4- 
ory 3 or ori 4- ly or or/ 4- ness ; as 4- .svf n?t. 

From the derivative sal td re, sal td tus, we get saltat 4- 
ort/ or ion ; ex 4- ult( = ,s#//f ) ; 4 ea; 4- *# 4- w^ or ing 4- /// ; 
ex+ultat + ion ; re + suit; re -{-suit-}- ant. 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Salmon, the fish name<l, porliaps, from its 
habits. 2 Salient, springing forward, projecting. s Desultory, leaping 
from one thing to another, as from horse to horse in the ring ; incon- 
stant. 4 Exult, to leap for joy. 

74 II "/'/- AW/,//, 

Sanct, sancfi. saiirttt, saints IVoin sand re sane tun, to 
ordain, to make sacred. 

San t-t -\-ion or i7// or (uni)(L.) ; sanrti -f /// or Ji + cr or 

//Vr/f /V;// or //^//// or iiioni + oife 1 or mo/ti + ous + Ii/ <>r ///^/ 
+ ous + ness; sam-ttt -^.-arii ; saint; saint + 1i/ or like or ed. 

Helps for the Pupil. ! Sanctimonious, affecting sanctity. 

Sat, from sa / /> . enough. 

$a*(is)4-/V r f act + ion or fact -\-ory or /acf + ori+ly ; 

t(\$) +fy or fact + ion. 
From the kindred verb sa ^' re, sa ^i /M, come *wf (e) : 

c? ; saf / + a^Zc ; M + wef * + a^/e or aW + y or able + // 
or abil + ity ; sat iat -\-ion or (e). From the kindred adj. 
sd tur, we get satir + ist or ue or ic + al or (e). 1 From the 
derivative verb sat u rd re, sat u rd tus, we get satur + dbU ; 
saturat + ion or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Satire, originally, a dish filled with 
ingredients, a medley ; a species of tint holding men or things up to 

Sec, Sect, (seg, &ci, sick), from se cd re, sec tus, to cut. 

Sec -{-ant; co + sec + ant; seg + ment; sci + on; sick + le. 
Bi, dis, in, inter, tri + sect; sect -{-or or ion or ion -f al or 
t*0n-f al + ism; bi, dis, inter, tri, vivi + sect + ion. 


Sen, from se nex 9 old. 

Sen -{-He or il + ity or esc + ent or i'or (L. comp. ending) 
or ior 4- tVy. Senior is written also *ire, *tr, seignior. 

Advanced English. 75 

From the derivative noun se nd tus, we get senat + or ! or 
or + (\)al or or + (i)al + ly or or + ship or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. l Senator, etymological ly, an old man. 
Serv, from ser vi re, to serve, see first list, additional roots. 

Serv, Servat, from servdre, ser vd tus, to save, protect, 
give heed to. 

Con, ob, pre, re -f serv(e) ; con, ob, pre + serv 4- er ; ob -f 
serv + able or abl + y or ant or ant + ly or ance ; ob, re, 
un + ob, un + re + serv + ed; re + serv + ed + ly or ed + ness; 
re + sert; + (oir) (Fr. ) . Gon, ob, pre, re -f servat -f ion ; con, 
ob -h servat -f or or orz/ ; con, pre -f servat + ive ; con + servat 
+ t'sm. 

, see Sia below. 

Son, Son i l (sonn, souri), from so >/ </ /v\ son / ^//s, to sound. 
or + ous or or + ous + ly or or -h ows 4- ^^^ ; UHI + 

son ; sonn + et l or et + eer; soun(d) (the rf excrescent); 
o ii w ( d ) + less or t^ ; r^ + so un ( d ) . Sonat + (a) ( L . ) . 

From the derivatives of sonare, we get as, con, di*. re + 
son -f- ant or ance ; per, 9 par 3 + son ; per, par -f son -h age ; 
m -f al or / + ly or / + //y or al + ty ; 4 im -{-per -f- son 
or al -f- /# ; jy^r + soni +fy or ^ca^ -f ion ; per -h son at + 
ion or 0r or (e) ; im+per+sonU+ ion or (e). 

Helps for the Pupil. : Sonnet, a stanza of fourteen lines. 2 Per- 
son, so called from the large-mouthed mask, worn by actors, through 
which the voice was made to sound ( personare) with increased reso- 
nance. The name then extended to every one. The 3 parson was the 
chief person in the parish. 4 Personalty, movables, chattels, as opposed 
to real estate. 


Sort, from sors f s6rtis 9 lot, class, order, share. 

Sort : sort + er or ance ; as, con, re -{-sort; as + sort + 

From the derivative sor ti a re, to cast lots, we get sorcer 
+y * or er or ess. 

Helps for the Pupil. * Sorcery, divination by casting of /o/x, magic. 

Spici, see > IM < . * pi < . first list. 

Sta, Stat, (st, stet), from stare, status, to stand. Slant, 
the present participle form. it, from sis te re, std tus, the 
causal and reduplicated form of stare. 

Sta + ble* (bulum) or bl + ing ; con (from comes = cum + 
ire. to go, = count) + sta + ble; sta + ble (able) or bl+y or 
ble + ness or bil + ity or bl + ish or mew or min + (a) (L.) ; e-f 
.?/<* -f #? -f ish or #/ -f iA + ment ; o^> + sta 4- c/e ; a 0^, c?i, /M * + 
sta+nt (= ant) or nt + ly; equi + di + sta + nt ; circum, 4 di, 
in, sub b -f sta + nc(=nt) (e) ; con + sta + nc+y ; in + sta + nt 
+ an + (e)ous; circum, sub-\-sta + nt + (i)al or nt + (i)al+ly 
or w/ H- (\)ate ; tran + ^w^ + sta -h w^ + ion or wtf + (i)a/g ; sub -f 
f a + nt + ive ; ex-\-ta(= sta) + nt ; sta 4- ft(za) (It. ) ; st a -f 
n(c\i) + ion; ar + re, contra, re' + st; re + st + ive or ive + 
ness. Stat(e) e, in, re, re -f in + stat (e) ; stat(z) + ly or /*' + 
ness; stat + ion or ion + ary or ion + ery or ion + er" 1 or />/ 
or ^ -f *c -f al or i's + /C5 or ist -f t'c + ian or wre or e(/ ; ob + 
stet + rix or ric-\-s or ric + al. 

From the derivative noun sM w , a standing image, we 
get statu + ary or //0 or ^we or (e). From the derivative 
verb sta tti e re, sta tu tus, to set up, establish, we get statut 
-{able or abl+y or ory or (e) ; con, de, in, pro, sub + stitut + 
ion or (e) ; con + stitu + ent or ency ; con + stitut + ion + al 
or ion + al + ly or ion + al + ist or ion + al + ism or 
f if w< -h iow -f a? or i 

Advanced English. 77 

Sis te re, the causal of stare, gives us as, con, de, in, per, 
re, sub + sist; as, re + sist + ance ; as + sist + ant; con, in, 
i n + con, per, sub + sist + ent or ence ; con, in + con + sist -f 
ency ; re, ir -\-re + sist -f Me or ibl 4- y or i W/ + tVy or ible + 
ness or less or less + ness ; ex + ist(=sist) ; 8 + to + 0ftl or 
eraee; super + st it i + on 9 or 0^s or ous-\-ly ; art/ti (<tnna, 
arms), sol 10 (sol, solis, the sun)-hsic(e). 

Helps for the Pupil. l Stable, a building for animals. 2 Obstacle, 
literally, something standing in the way. 3 Instant, standing near, at 
the heels of, pressing, urgent. 4 Circumstance, literally, standing 
around. & Substance, that standing under, and embodying, its qualities. 
9 Rest, that which stands, or is left, over. 7 Stationer, originally one 
who had a station or stand for the sale of books. 8 Exist, to stand out, 
to arise, /o 6e. 9 Superstition, a standing over or by a thing as in dread 
or wonder, hence excessiveness in worship or belief. 10 Solstice, the point 
in the ecliptic where the sw/i seems /o s/arcd li72 in its northward or 
southward motion. 


Sl el I, from stel la, a star. 

Stell + ar or ul + ar. 

From the derivative vb. stel Id re, stel Id tus, and n. stel Id- 
tio, we have stellat + ed or (e) ; con + stellcti + ion. 

String, Strict, Strictur, (strain, straint, strait, stress), 
from strin ge re, stric tus, to bind, draw tight, filter. 

String + ent or ent + ly or ency ; a + storing + wit or ency ; 
strain; strain + er; con, di, re + strain; con, re + *t>-<iin 
+ able; con + strain + ed or ed+ly. Strict: #tri<'t + ly or 
ness; di, re + strict ; con -f strict -f ion or or; re + strict + 
ion or i'#6 or ive + /y or 0<# ; ww 4- rp 4- strict + ^ ; con, di, re 
+ straint; strait; strait + en or ly or wess; strait + x; 
di -f stress ; di -f stress +ful or y*wZ -f Zy or iw^. Strictur(v) . 


Su or Sui, from su i, of one's self. 

Sui+cid(cwdere, to slay) + tf/ or <-i<l + al + ly or cfrl(e). 

Miaul, Suas from #*/</ ^ /v, suti sus, to advise, exhort. 

y^/.s', jper-l-sfearf(e) ; rf/s, per + suacl + er or erf. SHUS + 
ton or iw or ive + ly ; dis, per + anus + ion or tw or ive + ly 
or ive + ness. 

From the kindred adj. sudvis we have *uaf(e) ; 

^u i 1 - . see Reg, Rect 9 aboye. 

Taill or Tail, (tall), from tailler (Fr.), to cut. 

T<ti/ + or or or + ing; de, en, re -{-tail; de + tail + s; en 

; tall + y. 1 

Helps for the Pupil. How was the * tally originally kept? 

I : i ii ^ . see Tact, first list. 
Teg, Tcct, from teg e re, tec tn* 9 to cover. 

Teg(u) + ment; in + teg(\\)+ment or ment + ary. De, 
pro + 1 ect ; de + 1 ect + tow or ive or or or er ; pro + frrf + ion 
or ion + ist or tve or ive + ly or or or or + al or or + ate or or 
4- *A*p or r -f c / w w H- joro + tect -f erf. 

From the diminutive noun teg u la we get til(e) ; til + ing 

Tc k mpr 9 (temp, tens), from tern pus, tew j>or /s, time. 

Ti-nipor + al or al + ly or al + ity or rr/// or ari + ly or art 
-\-ness or /2orf + er; cora-f tenipoi' + ary or a^ + (e)o//; 
ex + f<'tn /><({') l oran + (e)ous or fog; t<-ntj> + le;~ /r//s(c). 

From thr derivative noun /OH /trx tas, tempcx t<i ti*. we 
get tempest;* tempe8t(\\) + dus or ous + ly or ous + ness. 

Advanced English. 79 

From the kindred verb tempe rd re, tempo rd tus, to mode- 
rate, qualify, we get temper ; at, dis + temper; tempera 
-\-nce or ment; tamper; temperat(v), temper at(p) + ty 
or ness ; in 4 temper a 4- nee ; in 4- temper at (e) ; in + tem- 
perat(e) + ly or ness ; temper at ur(e). 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Extempore, without time taken for prepara- 
tion. 2 Temple, the flat portion of either side of the head above the 
cheek-bone. 3 Tempest, bad time or weather, a storm. 


Tend, Tens, or Tent, from ten de re, ten SMS, or ten tus, to 
stretch, strive, try. 

Tend; 1 at, con, dis, ex, in, por,* pre, pro, sub, super + 
in + tend; tend -{-on or ency ; at 4- tend 4- ant or ance ; 
t<>nd + er ; pre + tend + er ;* in + tend + ed or ant or ment; 
super + in 4- tend 4 ent or ence. Tens(e) ; tens 4- ion or He ; 
in, pre 4- tens(e) ; dis, ex 4- fens 4- ion ; ex 4- fens 4- we or i 
+ ly or fve -f Hess or ible or ifo7 4- ity ; in + fens 4- ive or t 
ly or i% or (i)/*/ or (i)ficat + ion. Tent ; 4 ^OH, #E, 
+ fenf ; at, con, in, in + at + tent + ion ; at, in +at + tent 4- 
ive or ive 4- ly. 

From the derivatives os ten de re, ostensus, and os ten- 
tit re, os ten td tus, to show, exhibit, display, we have os + tens 
+ ible or ibl + y ; os + tentat + ion or (i)0?/s or (i)oits + ly or 
(i)ous + ness. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Tend, stretches toward. * Portend, to 
stretch out fn wards, to point to. 3 Pretender, one who stretches, or lays, 
to <;/irt# is ?io Ais. 4 Ten^, canvas stretched out with ropes. 

Test, (testi), from fe"s fis, a witness, one who attests. 
Testi+fy or fi+er or mow^/ or moni + al. 

80 \\nnl-rnnltli, 

From the derivative tes tu ri. /Vx /d ///.<?, to depose, to make 
one's last will, we have ti'stft + ment or ment + ary ; test at + 
or or r + ix; in + t<-st<it(e) ; at, con, de, pro + test; con + 
t< sf 4- able ; de + test + able or abl + y or rt&fc + >^ss ; joro 
+ ant or ant -{-ism or er; #, ote, ro + t<-stut ion. 

Tori, Tortur, (tor, tors,tortu), from tor quere, tor f its, to 
turn, wret, fovist. 

Torf ; ' con, dis ex, re a + tort ; con, d is -f tort -f ion ; ex + 
toft + ion or t'ow -f r or ion + #ry or ion -f ate ; ^o/^ + (oise) ; 3 
tor -f ment or m^w^ + or or /w0ft + m^ + ly ; tors -h ion ; tort u 
+ ous or ous + ly or ous + ness oros + ity. Tort ttr + able or 
0r or (e). 4 

Helps for the Pupil. > 7 T or/, a wrongful act, twisted from the r*#M. 
2 Retort, a censure returned ; a twisted, or 6e?i/, taie. 3 Tortoise, nuiurd 
from its bent feet. 4 Torture, writhing pain. 

Trail, Tract, (trac, trail, train, tray, trait), from /ivf he- 
re, trdc tus, to draw. 

Sub + /*/ 4- end. 1 Tract ; 2 fracf 4- ^7e or i7 4- it if < >r /^ // : 
abs, at, con, de, dis, ex, pro, sub + tract ; abs, at, con, de, 
dis, ex, pro, sub + tract + ion ; con, de, ex, pro + tract + or ; 
at 4 tract + able or abil + ity or ive or ive + ly or ive + ness ; 
fib*, dis, pro 4- fraetf 4 ed or rf 4- /y ; con 4- ^/ wcf 4- 0c? or r^/ /// 
or ed + ness or t'#Z0 or ible + ness or ibil + ity or He or // i //// ; 
trc + er or m^ or ery or (e) ; trac(e) + able ; trail ; train ; 
train + er; por + tray; trait; por + trait; por + trait + 

From the frequentative trac tare, tract a tus, to handle, 
manage, we get tract; 3 trftrftt +ble or W-f// or hie + ness or 
or r + ian ; re + tract ; 4 re + tract 4- ion or ive or 

Advanced English. 81 

He ; tractat(e) ; re + tractat + ion ; treat ; treat + y or ise or 
ment ; en + treat; en 4- treat + y. 

Helps for the Pupil. From what is the 1 subtrahend to be drawn, 
or taken ? 2 Tract, a region drawn or traced ; 3 tract, a short treatise. 
4 Retract, to handle again, to withdraw. 

Trit, (H), from ter ere, tritus, to wear, rub, waste. 

Trit(e) ; ' trit(e) + fo/ or wess ; #m -f- trit(c) ; 2 cow -f trU(e) 
+ ly; at, con, de + trU + ion; de + trit + (uB) (L.) ; de + fri 
+ ment or ment + al. 

From the derivatives ^ri'# w Z tfws and /n7 w r^ ^ws, perfect 
participles of ^ri w Zrf re and ^r// u rd re, we get tribnlat 
; 3 triturat + tow 4 or (e) . 

Helps for the Pupil. ! 7Vt7e, W;O/*AI out by use, hackneyed. 2 Con- 
trite, thoroughly rubbed, bruised ; hence penitent. 3 Tribulation, an 
affliction or providence sent to thresh and to separate the corn from the 
cAajf of our natures, as the tribulum was used in reo threshing. * 
uration, reducing to grains or 


Trud, Trus, from trn dere, trn stts, to thrust, push. 

De, ex, in, ob, pro + trud(e); in, ob + trud+er. De, ex, 

in, ob, pro + 1 rus + ion ; in, ob, in + ob + trtis 4- ive or ive + /# 
or ive + ness ; abs -f trus(e) ; #s -f trns(e) l + ly or 

Helps for the Pupil. * Abstruse, the meaning thrust aside, con- 

IJnd, I 'M Ha l, from mi. r?</ re, ww da fun (from tinda, wax . 
to surge, swell. 

, super + ab + iui<1 + ant or ant + ly or ancej ab, 
) super + ab-r (o)imtl. /^ -f undat + i'ow or (e). 


From unduldtus, p.p. <f un <ln l'i n\ a tlcrivutivr from 
undii l<t. a little wave, we get i<n<lult+ iun <r ory or (c). 

Yacl, Yas, from r<id e re, vd sun, to go, rush. 

J, in, per + ra<l(u): in r<1 + er. E, in, per + vas 4- ion 
or ive or we -f Zy ; e, per 4 ta 4- ive 4 ne&#. 

Val, (valu, r<ri/). from vale re, to bo strong, to bo of worth. 

J <// 4 zW or fd 4- /% or id + /^ or o;* or or 4- 0ws or or + 0ws 4 

Zy or (i)ant or (i)aw^ + ly or (i)rm 4 w^5 or ent 4- twe ; 

4tW or id + ity or id -{-ism or id + at + ion or id + ate ; 

pre 4- rJ 4- w^ or e?i^ 4 Z^ or e/ice : val(e) 4- ^icf 4- ory or 

4- fow or tud + (in) 4 ar 4- taw or ^w^ 4- (in) 4- ar -f ian 

or /Wfl? 4- (in) 4 ary ; con + 1* 4 65C + ent or 0S 4- ence or 

(e) ; valw 4- a^>/e or a^ 4 ion or a/ 4 or or (e) ; ww6?er 4 vala(o) ; 

t 4 vain 4- a We ; a^ j0r0'4- ^at7 ; a 4- v*^ 4- able or ##/ 4- y or 

dbil 4 tVy ; un + a + vail + m^ or able. 

Ven, Vent, Veiitur, (veni, venu, ventu), from ^e tti re, 
ven tus, to come. 

Con, contra, inter, super + ven(s) ; co+ven+#niorant+ 

er; con + veni + ent 1 or ent + ly or ewc6; vcitte(e) ; a, re + 

venu(e). Ad, circum, con, e,* in, pre + vent; con, contra. 

in, inter, pre 3 f rent 4 ion ; in, pre 4 vent 4 ive ; in 4 rent 

4- or or ory ; e 4- I^M -f/wZ ; cow 4- t>en 4 ion 4- #Z or ?'ow 4 a^ 

-f?y or ion+al + ism or ion+al + ity or (i)c/e; eow, <?4- 

ventu+al; e + ventu + al + ly. Venfui'(e) ;* ad,mis + ad, 

per + ad 4 venfwr(e) ; ventnr + ous 4- Zy ; r<'ttttii'(e) +some ; 

ad + ventur + ous orous + ness or er. 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Convenient, coming togef/n-r ; IK-IK-C miiluhh'. 
2 Event, wh&t comes out, result. * Prevention, literally. m/nini/ <t lira*/ , 
imliTiuir. thwarting. 4 IV//////V. an undcrlaking wh<>t.- i>su- <r 
i- t ui un- and can wo^ be foreseen. 


Vert, Ver, (versi), from ver te re, ver sus, to turn. 

Fer-f (ex) (L.) or (igo) or ic + al or ic + al + ly ; a, ad, 
(tnhn + ad, con, contro, di, in, per, re, retro, sub + verf ; 
ad + vert + ise or ise + ment or is + er; in -f ad 4- vert 4- ent 
or ent + ly or ence ; con + vert -f ible or ibl + y or ibil + ity. 
Vers(e) ; vers + ion; a, ad, di, in, ob, per, re, trans, tra, 
uni+vers(Q) ; a, anim + ad, con, di, in, per, re, retro, sub 
+ vers + ion; ad + vers + ary or ity ; anni + vers + ary ; 
contro + vers + y ; con, di, per, trans + vers(o) + ly ; re + 
vers -f al or ion 4- ary ; uni + vers + al or al -f ist or al -f ity 
or zYy; versi+fy or fi + er or flcat + ion; di + versi+fy 
or lYy ; control versi + al or al + ly or al + ist. 

From the frequentative ver sari, versdtus, we have 
0ft 4- ve^s 4- fl^ or (e) ; ver sat + t'fe or t7 4- i7y ; cow 4- ver sat 
-{-ion or ion + al or ion + al + ist; tergi(tergum, back) 4- 
versat + fc'0/&. 

Vi, (voy), from v* a, way. 

Zte, o^ im+per + vi + ous or ous + ly or ous + ness ; tri+ 
vi + al 1 or al + ly or al + ity ; vi(&)+duct ; coy + age or a</ 

From the derivative vb. via re, vidtus, Ave get con + vey ;* 
con + vey + ance or anc + er; con, en + voy; de+riat + i 
or (e) ; 

Helps for the Pupil. ' Trivial of what character would be the 
conversation of people meeting at the junction of (three) ways f * Con- 
vey, to bring along the way. 

\ 'if, (vis), from vi-cis, turn, change, stead ; ablative r;i*o, vice, 
in place of. 

or ar + age or ar-h(i)Z or r+ (i)0ws or 
ri<-( (>) + roi/ or r<'<j + al m ger + ent or 
+ ent or pre + sid + ency ; vis + count (comes = cum + ire, 
to go with). 

Volv, Voim, (ro^f, vo/f), from v6lverc, rolritus, to roll, 
turn around. 

Circum, con, de, e, in, r0 + ro/r(e) ; 
t, re + rolut + ion; e, re + roliit + ion + ist or ion + ary ; 
rofn + me l (=men) or min -{- ous or min + ous + ly or ble or 
U+y or bil + ity ; re + volt ; re + volt + er or i^ or ing + ty. 

Helps for the Pupil. What do you infer from the fact that the 
first J volumes were rolls ? 

Vot, (vow, vout), from vov6re, vdtus, to wish, to promise 
solemnly, to dedicate* 

Vow; a, dis + a + vow; a, dis + a + vow + al. Vot(e) ; 
vo# + 0r or iV0 or ive + ty or #r# or ar + ist or ar + ess or 
r + ess ; de + vot(e) ; rfe + vof-h^ or ed + ly or ed + ness or 
ion or ion + al or ee; de + vout; de + voiit + ly. 

Helps for the Pupil. What does a J vote express ? 


Arch, (arche, archt), from drchein, to be first ; arche, be- 
ginning, rule, chief. 

Mon, patri (pater, father), tetr(tetra, four) -f arch; an, 
kept (hepta, seven), hier (hieros, sacred), mon, olig(oligos, 

A < In inert I 

few) -f arch + y ; mon, olig 4- arch 4- ic 4- 0Z ; patri 4- refc 
+ aZ; arch + ive + s ; arch+duk(o) or duch+y or deacon 
or angel; arche + typ(e) or typ-Val; archi + tect (tekton, 
workman) or/ec^4Z4/*0 or totf-l-w40 m epi -\-scop + al or 
pelago (sea) or trave (irate, beam). 

Cycl, (cyclo), from cyciun, (*k. kuklos, circle, cycle, round of 

Cycl -f- /c or ic 4- al ; en 4- cycl + ic + al ; cycl + ops (eye) ; 
epi, tri, bi + cycl(o) ; cyclo + ne; cyclo + pedia (paideia, 
instruction); en + cyclo + pedisi ; cyclo + id or id + al. 

Hor, (horOf hour), from hora, hour, season. 

Hor + al or ary ; horo + scop(e) or scop + ic or scop + ic 
+ al or log(e) or log+y OTlog+ic+al ; hour; hour + ly 

or glass or plate. 

Pan, (jxmto), from pan, pantos, all, whole. 

Pan + the(theos, Qod)+ism or the + isi or ihe + isi + ic or 
4- 0^ ; J?>H 4- egyr 4- ic or egyr 4- is or egyr 4- tc 4- J or egyr 
; i>aw4-oply (o/?to, armor); ^>aH + acea (aios, cure); 
jpan -f demon! -f um ; pan 4- dect 4- 5 ; ^a?i -f orama (sight) or 
oram+ic or creas (flesh); pant o + mim (imitate) 4- (e) or 
mim 4- ic or mim 4- w^. 

Petr, (petri), from petra, rock. 

JPe(e)r; jpefr4-^ 1 or oleum 9 (oil); 0o(t) 4-lefo v (e) ; 
pefri +fy or ^ 4 er or /ac*f 4- ion or fact 4- ive or ficat 4- ion. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Petrel, the name given to the bird from its 
supposed ability to walk on the sea, like St. Peter. * Petroleum, called 
rocA; oi7 at first. 

86 \\nnl- 

1 Mi on. (phono), from P/HHH'-. sound. 

riinn -if or ics; anti + phon; (tuti + phon + y ; eu + 
phon+y or ic or ic + al or (i)ous or (\)ous + ly ; sym + 
p/ton + i/in- ist or (i)ous or (i)ous+ly; phon+tt+ioorei 
+ ic + al or e -f tc + al + ly or ^ -f ics or Ics ; y>// o/* <> 4- </raj>/i 
or graph + er or graph + ic or yrj>/t + ic + al or loy + y ur 

Pliyi 9 (physio), from phtisis, nature. 

I'/i i/si +c(=ic) or e + a? or c-f al + ly or c + ian or 
or es; meta+pkysi+cs or c + a? or c + al + ly or 
y>// //> / o + /ogr 4- y or Jo</ + ic + a? or Jogr + ic + al + ly or 
or gnom(gnomon, interpreter) +y or gnom + ist. 

Scop, (scept), from skopbs, a watcher, a spy. 

Scop(e) ; epi + scop + acy or ? or al + ian or tfte; (from 
ej/5 co pus comes the A.-S. bi + shoj), and from this, bi + shop 
+ ric ; arch + bi + shop ; arch + bi + shop + ric) ; Tcal( / v/ A/>- , 
beautiful) 4- eido (eidos,torni), micro (mikros, small), stetho 
(stethos, breast), stereo(stereos, solid) -f scop(e) ; micro + 
scop + ic or ic + al ; scept + ic or ic + al or ic + ism. 


Bear, bier, bar, bur, from beran, to carry, 

Bear; bear + able or er or ing ; for, over + bear ; for, 
over + bear + ing ; for + bear + ance ; bier ; ' bar(r) + ow ; 3 
bur + d + en or d + en + some. 

Helps for the Pupil. What is borne on a ^ier? What on a 
8 barrow ? 

Adr<t I/en/ I'l 

Bit, bull, from htfrtti. to lute, 

Hit ; bit(v) ; bit + cr or iny ; bit(i)+er or er + ly or er + 
ness or er + s or 0r-hs\viri : bait. 

Briii, brim, bran. hruii, brown, burn, from brinnan or 
by man, to be on flre, to burn. 

Brin + d + ed or d + le + dor y or (e) ; brim + stone; frrrm 
H-o? or c^ + 0^ 1 or d + y; bran (bran -f d) -f new ; 2 brun + t* 
or 0^0; brown; 4 broivn + ish; bruin; burn; burn + er 

or i5/i or iV* + ^r or t or e<tf. 

Helps for the Pupil. : Branded, by burning. - Bran new, fresh as 
a burning brand. * Brunt, tLe place in battle where the fight rages 
hottest. 4 Brown, a &ttrol color. 

Far, fer, f>r, from faran, to go travel. 

.FYfcr(e) ; far(e) + well ; field^ thorough (through), wel -f 
far(d) ; fer + ry or r^/4-nian or r?/-f boat ; for + d or 

Grav, grov, grfov, from grafan, to dig, to cut, 

; f/ntr + rr or r// or ////; e^ + grrav + er or 
(e) ; (/rov(e) ; f/rooi<(e). 

Hal, hail, lieal, hoi, (\v)hol, from 7m/, sound. 

Hal(e) ; /^^/(IJ + o^ 1 or otr + nut* or o/r + e'en ; i 
wees, be) -h sail(=hal) ; hail ; heal + //^ or M 4- // or /// -f i + 
/// or ^A + / + /aess or //^ + /'^/ or /// +// + ly or //* +ful+ n< 
* or /+>/^'-s- or /+/// or / + day or 
=/tol + * + but) ; (w)lw^(e) ; ( 
or sowe + wes^ or so/ne H- /// or sale. 

Helps for the Pupil. 1 Hallow, to make holy ; that is, spiritually 
sound. 3 Halibut, a ^/i eaten on holidays. 

*liear, sliar, hor, *hir, *li-r, scor, from scent H, to cut, 

or r/* or 
afcar(e) + holder : plow+Aar(e) : ' 

shir(v) :' >///>(<) i- t<.\vn : s/tcr(=shir) + itT( reeve) ; 
s/tcr + d; cor(e). 3 

Helps for the Pupil. A l />/o //*// f//v r^//x <>IT the .sV/Vv <-;illrl furrmr. 
9 Shirt, tlu- old Knirlish <li vision of land, wow a f vunty. ^ Score to 
mark twenty, a dee/? notch was cw/. 

Shoot, shot, scot, hcct, shut, from scrotim, to throw. 

Shoot ; slioot + er or t^; off + shoof ; shot ; .sy-o^ + frce ;* 
8/i^fY + ///// or anchor or lightning ; shut ; shut(t) + er or le 
or 7e 4- cock. 

Helps for the Pupil. * Scot free, exempt from paying or shooting 
something into the general fund. 

Stick, tak, steak, stock, stuck, stitch, from stician, 
to cling, adhere ; and a probable stecan, to pierce, stab. 

Stick; 1 stick f // or i + nesx ; t*tftk(e) ; 8tr<tk;' stock;* 
stock + y or ish or still or yard or jobber or holder 
or dove or exchange ; stock-}- s ; * stuck ; stitch ; stitch 4- ///// 
or er. 

Helps for the Pupil. l Stick= to cleave=to stabrra branch. >S7/7//r. 
meat on the end of a stick to be cooked. 3 8tock=p&rt of a gun c;iji- 
tal=public funds=stump of ?i tree = family. 4 Stocks, for the feet, for 

th<- building <>!' >liij. 

Tro\v, tro, tru, from trtowe, true. 

Trow; tro + th or tt-f plight; be + tro + th or tli 
tru(e); tru + ly or is/ft or th+ful or th+ful + ly or tf// 

or ^ or ^4-er or ^-j-ee or st+ful or st+ful + ly or 

Adoanccd Enylish. 89 

st +f til + nets or */-h// or xt + i + ly or st + i + >*e.s.s- or st -f 
worth + // ; w/5 4- ^rw + st or s +ful. 

ivis, from witan, to know* 

; to wit ; wit + less or less -{-ness or 
or / + fy or i + ness or i + c + ism; wis(e) ; wis(e)+ty ; wis 



<tb (d, abs) 

1'roMi. away 

(In (duo) 

= twc. 


ex (a, e, ec, ef, 

* (t d (a, ac, af, 

< > . 

= out of, from. 

ag, (it, (tin. 


= beyMiid, with. 

(in, dp, ar, 


(IS, (it) 

to, against. 

in (en, i, il, 

ainbi (amb, 

iin, ir) 

= not. 

din, an > 

around, on all 

in ( (tin, <///, 


em, en, //, 

ante (an) 


iin, ir) 

in, into, <>n. 




bi (bin, bis 

two, twice. 

inter (enter. 

circuui (circu) 



= anioni:. be - 



contra (con- 


= within. 

fro, coun- 


= near to. 


again>t . 

in (i fe (mat) 

= badly, evil, 

(tint (co, col, 

or ill 

com, con. 

ne, noc ( = no 

cor, cotm 

w i t h, to- 

+ (pie, IIC(/) 

= not. 

gether, or 

non ( = nc + 

adds I'uivr. 

nnn in) 

= not. DM! one. 


away. down. 

ob (<>, (H ', of. 

fro lit . Mi- 

op, os, o h > 

= against, upon. 

adds fuivr. 

pen (IHPIH-) 


di (de, deft, 

per (/Kir, pel * 

</*, dij' 

apart. not,op- 



po-ih- act. 



* For the sak- of 

euphony the luM letter of the 

pivtix i- often 

Changed to the fir- 1 l-t.t-r ol'tln- root, or i- dropped. 



pre = before. 

sub (sou, sue, 

prefer past, beyond. 

*uf, sug, 

pro (prod, 

stun, sup, 

prof, pol, 

sitt; sits) = under, from 

por, pur, 


prn) = f o r , forth, 

siibtrr = under. 


super (sur) = over, above, 

re (red) = again, back, 


against, or 

trans (tran, 


tra, tres) = b e y o n d , 



retro = backward. 


se (sed) = away, from. 

t ri (tre) three, thrice. 

semi half. 

ultra beyond. 

sine = without. 

vice (vis) = in place of. 


a at, in. on, or adds force. 

mis wrong, wrongly. 

after - behind. 

never = not ever. 

all (al) wholly. 

off = from. 

be = to make, cause, by. 

out = beyond. 

for = against, not, or adds 

over = above, in excess. 


to = at, the. this. 

fore = before, in front. 

un not, oppOMtc art in 

fort It - forward. 


full = completely. 

under beneath. 

f/ftiti .-- against. 

tre// (tvel) rightly. 

in (im) = in, into, within ; some- 

with = against, from. 

times, intensive. 



atnphi = on both sides. 

apo (ap) - from. 

ft n (a) = not. 

fftttt (vat) = down. 

< t it a = a g a i n , back, 

tit (d is) twice, two. 


<Hd /}} through. 

anti (ant) = against. 

dt/s = bad, ill. 


WonJ-I> ii Hill tifi. 

ec (ex) 
en (tni i 
epi (ep) 
eu (< / 
lie mi 

met a (met) 

from, out of, 

mono (moil) = alone, one. 

in, on. 

para (par) = beside. 


peri = around. 


poly = many. 


pro = before. 


jtsetido = false. 


*///* (>///, s//m, 

beyond, after, 

sys, s?/) = with. 



The part of speech formed by the aid of the suffix is indicated by 
the letter placed before it. n.=noun, v.=verb, . ^adjective, ad.= 

Many of these suffixes are much changed in form and in meaning 
by long sojourn in the French language. 

cable (abil, 
abl, ble, 
bl); ible 
(ibil, ibl, 
bil, bl) 

able to be, fit to 
be, causing. 



a nal, el, (I) 

having the qual- 

ity of, full of. 
stair or quality 
of bring. 


Mate of being : 
act of : t h a t 
which ; a col- 
lection of. 
TtaiiihiL: to ; 
the act of. 

a nan, ain, 
ane, ean, 

ian = pertaining to ; 

one who. 
nance, ancy 

(anC) ate of l.eiiig : 

act of. 

nand, end = L. fut. part. 

ant See cnf. 

= pertaining to. 
(ari) ar=beloiigiiig t : 
one who ; place where. 
" r <lt, /7, p. part, ending: ending 
of L. n. stem alsn. 

(at) having : one who : 
to make. 



nbulnm, bule, (bul) ble= 

place; that which or by which. 

nculum, cule, (cul), cle, cher 
= place; that which or by 

ce. See acy. 

ncle, eel, cule, (cul)= little (dim- 

!/. See acy. 

nee=one to whom. 

veer. See second er, below. 

el, eel. See al. 

nence, (enc), ency=st&te of be- 

neus of, belonging to. 

" "eut =one who ; that which ; 
being or ing. 

ncr, (-/), eer, ier,=one who. 

ver (frequentative or causative). 

(tern = of, belonging to. 

>y, er place where ; state 
of being ; collection ; art of. 
?=to grow to or become, 
denotes female agent. 

egi*e=8oraewhat, like. 
l ^of, belonging to. 
r=of, belonging to. 

"ftte, et=litt\e (diminutive). 

ey. See y. 

ible. See able. 

<*> nic, ical= pertaining to ; made 
of ; one who. 

nice=st&te or quality of being ; 
thing that. 

iri=:quality, pertaining to. 

ier. See eer. 

<*ile, (7)=able to be ; relating to. 

(in) = belonging to ; n. end- 

ing also. 
"/fm=act of; state of being: that 


fV//f/;= belonging to. 
ish. See esc. 
n aite = one v/ho : bcimr. 
n ity, (^/)=slnt' ur quality of be- 

aive, (iv)=o\\c, who; that which ; 

having power or quality. 
nix, denotes a female. 
=that which. [give. 

c ize, (iz), ise, (itt) = to make, to 
vle 9 (I) (frequentative). 
ale, n\l). See a/, el. 
'>lence=SLbui\da,nce of. 
aletit= abounding in. 

&t acted upon. 
= state of being ; act of ; 

thai which. 

, (inoni)=st&te of boim:: 

that which ; that derived from. 

pertaining to. 
non, oon, iou=one who. 
OH. Sec ion. 

not*=one who ; that which. 
"or, OH. restate or quality of be- 

ing: place \\here. 

(o/'/)=:relating to; place 

where: thing which. 

, (os), OM8=full of, having. 
= onc who. 
nr=cr or or=one who. 
rix denotes female agent. 

si on, son. See ion. 

Word- 1! nil 




///. Sec ity. 
prone to 

state of bo- 

, />/ little (diminuth 
. u/r -lal. ,. r a, -| ,,r : lluit 


ttrn --belonging 1<>. 
//. /') Btote <>r bring: that which. 


trr -one who. 
<tr<I one wh>. 

r </ow state of being; domain of. 
^CfZ, f?, f = past tense and jiast 

par. I'ndiiiir. 
w/7 that wliidi or by which. 

en madr <>!' : to make ; past 
par. little (diminutive). 
nei=ono \vh<>: that which. 
acr=mniv (comparative degree). 
(frequentative or causative). 
(adjt-ctive nidi- 

most (superlative degree). 
ful= full of, causing. 
nhead, /i-oocl=j>iate or (juality of 

/V, y=littlc (diminutives). 

the act : rout inning. 
somewliat : like; to make. 
--little (diminutive). 
9 dcnoti- fiv(jucnt action. 

I s.s \\ it Inuit. 

wJe=little (diminuti -. 

^7 hif/=. little (diminutive). 

, (ft, y) = like. manner, 
state or (juality <!' 
wocfe=little (diminutive). 
or=rone who. that which. 
voiv=to make. 
now=by which. 

or es the plu. ending of nouns 
and the ending !':M per. >inir. 
of verbs. 

or 9 denotes possessive case. 
= state of, office of. 

"SOMI-f -full ol', eaiisim:. 

ngt= state of 
of leinr. 


in- ^ pertaining t. 
net =one who. 

'"'/r/.sv manner. 
ny. See ie. 

<*//:= full of. having. 
" '" l I/. See ///. 


/'.sv. /'.:>' to make: to give, 

-talc of bring; doctrine. 

n\ it-ftl jH-rtaining t> : made 

of : one wliu. 
, i< s of. 

>'/.s7-o!le who. 

ny= state u| l.cin 



Vowels and Consonants. 

DEFINITION. A Vowel is a letter that stands for a free, open 
sound of the Toice. 

The vowels are a, e, i, o, u. 

W is a vowel when it unites with a preceding vowel to represent a 
vowel sound ; as, new, now ; and y is a vowel when it has the sound of i ; 
as, by, duty, boy. W and y are consonants at the beginning of a word 
or a syllable ; as, wet, yet. 

DEFINITION. A Consonant is a letter that stands for a sound 
made by the obstructed voice or the obstructed breath.* 

The consonants are the letters of the alphabet not named above as 

Sounds of the Vowels. 

Diacritical marks used in Webster's Dictionary. 

1. a, long, in hate. 

2. a, short, in hat. 

3. a, Italian, in far. 

4. a, broad, in all. 

5. a, intermediate, in ask. 

6. a, long before r, in care. 

1. e, long, in me. 

2. &, short, in mSt. 

1. I, long, in pine. 

2. i, short, in pin. 

1. 5, long, in note. 

2. 6, short, in n8t. 

3. o (like Zongr oo) in do. 

1. u, long, in tube. 

2. u, sftor*, in tub. 

3. u (like short oo) in pulL 

4. u (before r) in fur. 

oi and oy (unmarked = at) in oil, 

ou and ow (unmarked = aoo) in 
out, now. 

//, which represents a mere forcible breathing, it) an exception. 


One letter used for another. 

a = 8, as in what 

6 = &, as in where, heir. 

5 = a, as in eight. 

= ft (nearly), as in her. 

i : - e, as in police. 

T = ft (nearly), as in sir. 

6 = ft, as in done. 

6 = a, as in form. 

o (unmarked) = ft, as in worm. 

<5b = p, as in moon. 

06 u, as in wdbL 

u ss p, as in rude. 

y -I, as in fly. 

y = f , as i 1 1 m^th. 

9 = u, as in wolf, 

Remarks. a is between a and a. a represents tin- first, or i.i-li 
cal," part of fl, touched lightly, without the " vanish/' or e sound, a 
is nearly equivalent to # prolonged before r. 

H is between -& and e. Some careful speakers discriminate between & 
(= o in toorm) and e (= 1), making the former a modification of u anl 
the latter a modification of . 

In the *' International Dictionary " (the latest " Webster "), ^, e< 
i, o, u, represent the long sounds as modified in syllables without 
accent ; 6.0., senate, event, idea, obey, unite. The ' Intt-niational " 
often respells instead of using diacritical marks. 

When one vowel of a diphthong is marked, the othrr is silent. 

Diacritical marks used in Worcester's Dictionary. 

a in hate. 
Z in hat. 
& in far. 
& in all. 
& in ask. 
a in care. 

* in met. 

I in pine. 
I in pin. 

o in note. 
6 in not. 
6 in do. 

u in tube, 
u in tub. 
u in pull, 
ii in fur. 

61, 5$- in oil, toy. 
fiu, 6w in out, now. 


6 in where. 
8 in her. 
1 in police. 
I in sir. 
6 in done. 

5 in form. 
66 in moon, 
u in rude. 
f in fly. 
^ in myth. 

Sounds of the Consonants. 

Explanation. The two classes of consonants are arranged below in 
separate columns. Those in "1" are called vocal consonants (voice 
consonants), and those in "2 " are called aspirates (breath consonants). 

The letters with dots between them form pairs. Give the sound of 
the first letter of any pair, and you will find that, as the voice stops, 
the vanishing sound will be the sound of the other letter. The tongue, 
teeth, lips, and palate are in the same position for both, the only differ- 
ence being that in one there is voice, and in the other only a whisper. 


Vocal Consonants. 





c. . 

. . . . k 

. . h 

i. . 




n. . 




Vocal Consonants. 


th (in thine) (th in thin) 

T f 



z (in zone). . : s 

z (in azure) sh 

C, q, and x are not found in the columns above. C = k or s; q 
x = ks or gz. 

Diacritical marks Webster. 

9, soft (= s), in 9ent. 
-e, hard (= k), in -call. 

ch (unmarked) in child. 

9h, soft ( sh), in chaise. 
-ch, hard (= k), in -chorus. 

g, hard, in get. 

g, soft (= j), in gem. 

s, sharp (unmarked), in 
9 ,50/*(=z), in ha?, 
th, sharp (unmarked), in thin. 
4hj soft or vocal, in-lkis. 
n (= ng) in ink. 

98 Wort/-/' 

Diacritical marks Worcester. 

9 in cent. 
X/, 5 (or JD) in call. 
ch (unmarked) in child, 
ch in chaise. 

JCH, fh (or jch) in chorus. 
J3, & in get. 

G, in gem. 
s In has. 

th (unmarked) in thin. 
TH th in this. 
in exist. 


RULE I. Final r is dropped before a suffix beginning with a 
Towel; as, fine, finer; love, loving. 

Exceptions. Worjls ending in ce and ge retain e before able and 
ous to keep c and g soft ; as, peaceable, changeable, courageous. Words 
in oe and ee retain the e unless the suffix begins with e; as, // 

RULE II. r after a consonant becomes i before a suffix not 
beginning with i ; as, witty, wittier ; dry, dried. 

Exception. Y does not change before ' ; as, enemy's. 

RULE III. In monosyllables and words accented on tho last 
syllable, a final consonant after a single vowel doubles before a 
suffix beginning with a vowel ; as, hot, hotter; b< -/////, 

Exceptions. The final consonant is not doubled when, in tin- deriv- 
ative, the accent is thrown from the last syllable of the primitive ; as, 
refer*, reference. But we have excel', ex'ctlltnt, ex'c< l!> ncc. X, k, 
and v are never doubled. 

Remark. To tin liule^ above (and inferences from thorn) there an- 
a few other exceptions; as, dyeing (coloring), sinifi-imj, tinyriny, mi/cog*., 
awful, wholly, / f . <i<-knirli><\<iin<>nt ; ,N-//////, drynt**, piteuus ; 

, transferable, bumbuyytd, crystallize, cancellation. 



THE languages spoken on the earth have been more or less 
perfectly classified. Above all other classes in importance is 
that to which our own tongue belongs, namely : 

I. The Indo-European Family. Of this family there are 
ten members three Asiatic and seven European. Seven of 
the ten have long been recognized : (1) The Indian, or San- 
skrit, used in Hindostan ; (2) the Iranian, or Ancient and 
Modern Persian ; (3) the Hellenic Ancient and Modern 
Greek ; (4) the Italic, that is, the Latin and its descendants 
viz., the Italian, the Spanish, the Portuguese, the French, 
the Provencal, the Eheto-Romanic, and the Wallaehian : (5) 
the Slavonic preeminently the Russian ; (6) the Celtic, or 
Keltic, made up of the Cymric and the Gaelic ; and (7) the 
Teutonic, subdivided into the (Jothic, the Scandinavian, the 
High German, and the L>\v (Jerman. Into the Low (id-man 
the English falls. To these seven, recent scholars have 
added (8) the Lithuanian, closely related to the Slavonic; 
(9) the Armenian ; and (10) the Albanian. 

II. The Celts. This people early occupied the Spanish 
Peninsula, Gaul when Caesar subdued it, and Britain when 
Caesar visited it in 55 and in r>4 B.C. The Celts in Britain 
were at this time broken into many tribes, which seldom 
united in a common cause. 

III. The Roman Conquest. The Celts did not make a 
stubborn resistance to the Unmans, who by 84 A.D. had con- 
quered as far north as the Firth of Forth. This the Romans 
joined to the river Clyde by the wall of Antoninus. They 
subsequently built, as additional protection, the famous wall 
of Severus, or Hadrian's wall, uniting the Solway tod the 
Tyne. The Romans did not attempt a thorough conquest 
of Britain ; but, with their headquarters at Eboracum, now 
York, held the island by a series of fortified y>os/s, whose 
sites are now mainly indicated by towns with names ending in 
Chester, cester, or caster forms of the Latin castra, a camp. 
But the imperial city whose empire stretched so far. whose 
armies were largely composed of soldiers drafted from her 
subject peoples and led by generals of their own blood, WAS 
menaced by invading hordes, and was forced to recall her 
legions for her own defence. By 420 the soldiers had all 
left Britain, never to return, and the Celts were again free. 
But their freedom, was of short duration. By the middle 
of the fifth century a more formidable invasion than the 
Roman had taken place, and a more thorough conquest was 
begun by 

IV. The Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes. These peoples 
were of the Low German branch of the Teutonic stock. 
They had blue eyes and flaxen hair, were large of frame, 
fond of adventure on land and on sea, and were fierce and 
cruel in battle. They were owners and fitters of the so/7, 
hated cities, knew no kinir. and lived cadi group of related 
families within its mark, or district, which was bounded by 
a belt of neutral land from other "farmer common weali 

The e/f/^-s, we are told, came over under IleniriM and 
Horsain44 ( J. and settled in Kent. Klla and his i'ollo\\ 
in 477, and Cerdic with his, in !'.>.">. settled Sussex in the 

History of the English L ////" 101 


south and Wessex in the west, and later 'Saacons founded 
Essex. The ending sex, would of itself suggest the origin of 
these kingdoms. Three kingdoms north of Thames the 
largest of which, Northumbria, stretched from the Humber 
to the Forth were founded by the Angles. Besides North- 
umbria, East Anglia and Mercia were established. 

The conquest of the Celts by these Low German invaders 
proceeded slowly. Not till 607 had the unex terminated 
Britons taken refuge in the western part of the island. And 
now for more than two hundred years the conquerors waged 
fierce war upon one another. The several kingdoms, for 
war begat the king, contended for the overlordship, till at 
last Wessex secured it, and Egbert its king ruled from the 
English Channel to the Firth of Forth. 

Meanwhile the invaders had been Christianized, Augus- 
tine and his missionaries arriving from Kome in 597. The 
Christian temple rose on the site of the pagan fane. By the 
end of the seventh century, the Church was a single organ- 
ization. As population increased, the marks coalesced and 
became shires, of which in Alfred's time there were thirty- 
two, each with its religious, legal, and political organization. 

V. The Danish Conquest. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 
relates that in 787 the Danes, as all Scandinavians at that 
time were called, began their invasions. Sweeping up the 
great rivers that pour into the North Sea, they laid waste 
the territory adjacent, harried and killed the inhabitants, 
and settled as they conquered. The very verb hurry is 
Anglo-Saxon, derived from their name for the dreaded Dan- 
ish army he-re. What terror this army inspired may be 
gathered from the prayer that made its way into the Anglo- 
Saxon litany : " From the incursions of the Northmen, good 
Lord, deliver us/' 

These Bcahclihavians were heaten in irreat battles and 
driven back, but only to return. They were bought oil' with 
gold ; and finally, on condition that they would eon line 
themselves within it, they were given the territory to the 
east and north-east of Wntlhiy Stwf, an old Roman mili- 
tary road which stretched from near Dover through .London 
to Chester on the Dee. But they could not be kept within 
the limits of this territory, called the I> n< l<u/ii, and at last 
succeeded in placing four kings in succession on the throne 
of England Sweyn, Canute, Harold llarefoot, and Hardi- 
canute, 1013-1042. 

VI. The Norman Conquest. The Normans, or Northmen, 
were originally of the Norse, or Scandinavian, branch of the 
Teutonic race. " They were men of action, enterprising 
merchants, navigators, soldiers of fortune, leading the van 
of every battle from Norway to Byzantium." Breaking 
from the restraints of a power that was consolidating the 
Scandinavian kingdoms, they boldlv ventured forth, con- 
quered the Shetland Isles, the Orkneys, and the Hebrides, 
founded the kingdom of Caithness in Scotland, settled Ice- 
land, discovered Greenland, and colonized Yinland. supposed 
to be on the coast of New-England. 

In 911, a Norman chief, Rolf, or Rollo, the Ganger, with 
his band of vikings, got a footing in the fertile valley of the 
Seine. This province of Normandy he received as a lief 
from Charles the Simple, arid married his daughter. The 
rmans were brought under Fivneh law and customs, 
became Christian-, adopted the French lan.irua^e, married 
into French families, and caught the French spirit. 

In 1066, the childless Edward the Confessor, of England, 
died, and Harold, his hrother-in-law, succeeded him. Hut 
William, seventh Duku of Normandy, whose aunt. Kmnia, 

History of the English Language. 103 

had been married to Ethelred II. of England, claimed the 
throne by hereditary right and by the promise of both Ed- 
ward and Harold, and set sail with thirty thousand followers 
for the coast of England. On October 14, 1066, he met and 
defeated Harold on the slope of Senlac, near Hastings, 
and soon after was crowned king at Westminster. This was 
the one conquest that reached down to the people of the 
island, and in time thoroughly leavened them. The ad mix- 
tyre of new blood and another spirit proved a most signal 
blessing to them. We can call it no less than their regen- 



I. Celtic of the First Period in English. The language 
spoken on the island, after its conquest by the Angles, the 
Saxons, and the Jutes, was overwhelmingly that of the con- 
querors, and is called Anglo-Saxon. But it was not pure ; 
a few Celtic words had entered it. The Celtic names for 
the rivers, lakes, hills, and mountains clung fast to these 
objects, and are found in English even now. 

Isaac Taylor, in his Words and Places, says, " Through- 
out the whole of England there is hardly a single river-name 
which is not Celtic/' Avon, Celtic for water, is the name <>f 
fourteen English rivers to-day. Esh, meaning the same 
tiling, designates more than twenty. Esk has entered int.- 
the names of towns also, as in JS^eter, Axminster, Oxford, 
and Abridge. Thames, Humber, Wye, Cam, Ouse, and 
many other river-names are Celtic. Pen or Ben, the usual 
Celtic name for a mountain, is seen in the name for the 
range called Pennine, in that of the hills called /Vwtland, in 

104 \\'<>nl-Buildit. 

Jfow-Nevis and /tat-Lo&umd. Dun, a hill-fortress, is found 
in London, /Jwwbarton, 7^/wdee, etc. Many other Celtic 
words can be found on almost any map of England, and, 
indeed, on the maps of Spain, Italy, Switzerland, and (M -r- 
inany. Besides these geographical terms it is said that the 
common words 

Clout, crock, cradle, cart, clown, pillow, barrow, glen, havoc, kiln, 
mattock, and pool 

came into the Anglo-Saxon before the Norman Conquest. 
As other Celtic words appeared later, we will call all tin- 
whether geographical or not, entering the Anglo-Saxon and 
continued on into English, the Celtic, or AV///V, of f/t<> 
rirst Period. 

II. Latin of the First Period in English. But in the 
Celtic vocabulary foreign words had found a lodgment. 
The Romans held most of the island for hundreds of years. 
Many of their words filtered down into the speech of the 
subject Celts. Some ef these, seven it is said, forced their 
way up into the language of the Anglo-Saxon conquerors. 
Castra, a camp, appears in the names of towns ending in 
Chester, caster, and cester, as Manchester, Lancaster, and 
Leicester ; strata, paved streets, in Stratford, Streat\\nm, 
etc. ; colonia, a settlement, in Lincoln and Colne ; fossa, a 
trench, in Fossw&y and jPosbridge ; portus, a harbor, in 
Portsmouth and Brid/wrtf; vallum, u rampart, in wall; 
and mile. These seven now in English we call Latin of the 
rirst l'< rio<t. 

III. Latin of the Second Period in English. But. as \u 
have said, the heathen Anglo-Saxons were Christianized. 
Hosts of Rowan trordtt, some of which were derived from 
the . came in with, or follow^ in the wake of, the 

History of the En<jli*li Language. 105 

Christian Church, whose services were conducted in Latin. 
Presbyter, originally an elder, apostolus, one sent, clericus, 
one ordained, and episcopus, an overseer, taking the forms 
in Anglo-Saxon of preost, postol, clerc, and biscop, and in 
English of priest, apostle, clerk, and bishop, and such words 
as cheese, pound, candle, table, and marble illustrate these 
acquisitions. Of the Latin words brought into Anglo-Saxon 
by the Church, or entering through the door which it 
opened, there were before the Norman Conquest at least six 
hundred, it is thought ; if compounds are counted, three or 
four times as many. These are styled the Latin of the 
Second Period. 

IV. Scandinavian of the First Period in English. The 
Danish Conquest introduced Scandinavian terms. Taylor 
says that in the east of England, most of them in the Dane- 
lagh, there are six hundred places whose names end in by, 
Scandinavian for town. This is seen in RugSy, Grims#//, in 
one hundred names in Lincolnshire alone, and in our #y-law. 
Thorp, or torp, German dorf, a village, is found in Althorpe 
and Wilstrop; thwaite, a clearing, in FinstttPatfr and 
Br&ithwaite ; ness, a nose or cape, in Sheemess and Caith- 
ness ; wic, a creek or bay, in Wickh&m, Norwich, and in 
vik'mg ; toft, a homestead, in Lowesrfo/2 and To^ness ; and 
yarth, a yard, in Aipplegarth and Fishguard. All these and 
beck, a brook ; force, a waterfall ; dale, German thai, a 
valley ; and holm, an island, existing as separate words or in 
composition, and entering before the Norman Conquest, w- 
call Scandinavian of the First Period. 

V. The^ Norman French Latin of the Third Period in 
English. The changes which the Anglo-Saxon underwent 
because of the Norman Conquest are vital, we will say fun- 
damental; they amount to a revolution. A change of 


name is needed t> mark this. \\e have refrained from 
calling the dominant people of the island, or their speech, 
before 1066, by any other term than Anglo-Sawn. But 
after the union of the peoples and of the languages, a new 
word is needed to denote new things : and this term we have 
in the word Knglish. As we use it, English denotes always 
the race resulting from the marriage of the two peoples, or 
the speech resulting from the union of the two tongues. 

But we must guard against supposing that either the two 
peoples or the two tongues were welded into one instantane- 
ously. They grew together, and this growth was slow. 

The Two Peoples Side by Side. Any yoke of conquest 
would be galling to the liberty-loving Anglo-Saxons, but 
there are special reasons why this was so. The conquerors 
were of alien blood, and national animosity existed between 
them and the conquered. William confiscated the entire 
soil. He parceled out the land, upon condition of militarv 
service, among a score or more of great vassals, among Home 
hundreds of inferior crown-vassals, and among the higher 
clergy. "The meanest Norman rose to wealth and power 
in the new dominion of the Duke." Shoals of Norman 
ecclesiastics came across the Channel, and the people were 
forced to receive even religious consolation from foreigners. 
Another language than their own prevailed in all places of 
authority in the palace and among the nobility, in law 
courts, in the schools. To their painful consciousness of 
social and political degradation was added their keen sense 
of the scorn with which the Norman regarded their lack of 
culture and their " harbarous tongue." , 

Mut the influences operative through all these years were; 
not wholly those of repulsion. 'These two peoples living 
together had to meet each other in the iield and in the town. 

History of the English Language. 107 

The}? were forced to buy of each other and to sell to each 
other. The subject race gradually acquired definite rights. 
The serf was struggling to become a copyholder, and the 
copyholder to be a freeholder. The military power of the 
nobles was waning. The courts of the feudal baronage were 
shorn of their power. The feudal system was giving way. 
The Anglo-Saxons were improving in education as in ma- 
terial things. They and the Normans intermarried. 

A strong national feeling was springing up before which 
their mutual antagonism was yielding. This feeling was 
aided by the fact that the English kings had vast possessions 
in France, partly hereditary and partly acquired by mar- 
riage. To hold these against the French kings required a 
united people. And to make head against the encroach- 
ments of their own kings the nobility were forced to make 
common cause with the people. To what extent the barons 
identified the cause of the commons with their own may be 
seen from the celebrated provisions of the Great Charter 
extorted from King John in 1215. 



V. Latin of the Third Period in English. Continued. Yet 
how slowly the Anglo-Saxon and the French were blending 
in the vocabulary of writers, at least, may be seen in the fact 
that Layamon's Brut, a poem of thirty-two thousand lines, 
written in,1205, does not contain a hundred and fifty French 
words; and that in the Ormulnm. a poem of twenty thou- 
sand lines, appearing in the year of Magna Charta, scarcely 
fifty French words are found. 

108 \\'nri/-/;ni/t/iiig. 

The Two Languages Side by Side. But during this period 
tlu i fint/iiistic di/Jtcu/th's in the way of a coalescence were 
gradually / This period was for the subject race 
one of great and general depression. Their speech was no 
longer cultivated. The standards in it were all forgotten. 
Anglo-Saxon was no longer taught in schools, spoken at the 
palace and in the castles of the nobles, or used in courts of 
law. Few were writing in it. It was left in the care of 
those ignorant of the literature in it and of its grammar, and 
familiar only with the vocabulary employed in speech upon 
the commonplace topics of the household, the farm, the street. 

The effect of all this upon the language can easily be in- 
ferred. A l&rge fraction of the vocabulary, the more digni- 
fied and scholarly portion, fell into neglect and then into 
ohlivion. Of the words kept in circulation, so much of 
.each as we call its grammatical inflections, denoting case, 
person, number, tense, almost entirely perished. These in- 
flections would be retained only by those aware of their im- 
portance. When, then, this Anglo-Saxon speech had forced 
itself upon the Normans, as it fairly succeeded in doing by 
the second half of the fourteenth century, it was far <">/>/ 
to tmtstcr than it would have been immediately after HMJlJ. 
It is estimated that nearly one-half of the words in the vocab- 
ulary before the Conquest dropped out of it in the three 
hundred years immediately following, and we certainly know 
that, the grammar had been vastly simplified. 

Instruction Revolutionized. We said that by 1350 the con- 
quered had forced their tongue upon their conquerors. We 
have it upon the authority of John of Trevisa, that, after 
the great pestilence of 1349, the instruction of youth was 
revolutionized. John Cornwall changed the instruction in 
the grammar-school from French into Knglish, and Kichard 

History of the English Language. 109 

Pencrich and others followed his lead, so that in 1385 in all 
the grammar-schools of England the children had abandoned 
I'Yench and were taught in English. In 1362 French was 
exchanged for English in the courts of law. An act of 
Parliament was passed in this year, ordering that in all the 
courts " all pleas . . . shall be pleaded, shewed, defended, 
answered, debated, and judged in the English tongm." 
Great writers had now arisen Wyclif, 1324-1384, in prose*; 
Chaucer, 1340-1400, in poetry. They wrote in English, and 
their influence upon the plastic language of their time, and 
upon all English writers succeeding, is simply incalculable. 

The Norman-FrenchCorrupt, We may add that the 
adoption of Anglo-Saxon by the Norman was greatly facili- 
tated by the fact that the French he was ttsi n</ had become 
sadly corrupt. That which he brought over from the Con- 
tinent was not the French of Paris, but the degenerate 
tongue of Normandy, and so at best was provincial, a mere 
patois. But during the centuries of its use in England it 
had been kept from free contact with the dialect of Nor- 
mandy, and so had deteriorated even from this imperfect 
standard had become, as Lounsbury aptly puts it, a mere 
fKtfnis of a patois. 

When now we say that by 1400, and even earlier, English 
was generally used, what are we really saying ? What do 
we mean by Kit</fish / We mean a speech not in existence 
by itself till long after the Norman Conquest ; a speech 
neither Anglo-Saxon nor French, but Aiiylo-Sti.ron <ntd 
French; a speech to which both of these contributed, to 
form which both of these combined. What by mutual giv- 
ing and taking the two jointly formed is the English one 
speech after the union, but not uuivocal, not all of a piece, 
every speaker of which is bilingual. 


The Norman-French really Latin. We have hitherto 
called the tongue brought over by the Conqueror Nortttan- 
F re neb. But it is time now to say that in reality it trs 
Latin. Just before the Christian era began, Julius Cmar 
subdued the people then in possession of what is now 
France, and imposed upon them his language, which was 
that of Rome. This language, used for a thousand years 
by a people to whom it was not the mother-tongue, the 
Normans, of still another alien stock, acquired, and brought 
into England. Spoken a whole millennium by those whose 
vernacular it displaced, and from them learned by strangers, 
the words had lost much of their original form and meaning. 
They were almost invariably shortened. By a dropping of 
vowels or consonants, or of both, two or three syllables had 
been squeezed into one ; as, French sur, our sure, from 
original Latin securus ; French regie, our rule, from Latin 
regula ; French He, English isle, from insula. And some- 
times the final and unaccented syllable or syllables seem not 
to have been caught by the subject Gaul ; or, if caught, were 
not retained. The Latin domina, for instance, appears in 
French as the truncated dame ; and malum, as tnaL Still, 
though changed, the French words are Latin ; their essential 
identity with the words used by the countrymen of Horace 
and Virgil is easily seen. These Norman-French words, 
introduced in the centuries succeeding the Conquest, and 
entering into union with the Anglo-Saxon to form the 
English, constitute the Latin of the Third I'< riod. 

VI. Latin of the Fourth Period in English. The Norman- 
French words in English were largely spoken words words 
dropping from the tongue, and learned by the ear, both in 
France and afterward in England. But tin-re was another 
large influx of Latin words consequent upon that great 

History of the EmjUxh Lunfinage. Ill 

quickening of European mind known as the Renaissance, 
or Revival of Learning, the first waves of which touched 
Knglish shores about the opening of the sixteenth century. 
The New Learning and the new ideas to which it gave birth 
demanded new words ; and, from 1550 to 1660, Latin was 
the store on which writers began to draw. But the Latin of 
these learned men was the Latin of the eye and the pen, 
taken from Latin literature ; or, if from French as well, it 
was not the language spoken by the people. The Latin 
words thus transferred to English had suffered then, and 
have suffered since, little or no change, and may readily be 
distinguished from the Latin of the Third Period by their 
fuller form. These Latin words, brought in to meet the 
needs of scholars and their coming has not yet wholly ceased 
are called the Latin of the Fourth Period. 



VII. Celtic of the Second Period in English. But as the 
original Celtic of Britain had Latin words in it, so the Latin 
of the Normans had Celtic words in it. The Gauls them- 
selves were Celts ; and it could not be that, when forced to 
adopt the Latin tongue, they would surrender every word of 
their own speech. Indeed, in the province of Brittany, the 
native tongue was not exterminated, and, as Breton, still 
survives. The Celtic words brought into English by the 
incoming of the Normans constitute the Celtic of the 
Second Period. A few of these words are 

Baggage, bar, barrel, basin, button, carry, pottage, truant, varlet, 
and vassal. 

112 Word-Building. 

VIII. Celtic of the Third Period in English. Whatever 
Celtic words have been admitted into English since, whether 
Irish, Welsh, Gaelic, or Breton and 

Clan, claymore, flimsy, kern, pibroch, plaid, spalpeen, and whiskey 

are samples of these constitute the Celtic of the Third 

IX. Scandinavian of the Second Period in English. 
Whatever Scandinavian words have come into English since 
the Norman Conquest, and, according to Professor Skeat, 
their name is legion, such as, 

Are, call, drag, gabble, grab, hap, hinge, hurry, lug, lunch, pod, sag, 
scratch, scream, shirt, stutter, teem, whim, and whisk, 

we call Scandinavian of the Second Period. 

X. Greek in English. Greek has a very respectable con- 
tingent in English five per cent, of the whole vocabulary, 
Trench estimates. Perhaps half this number would be a 
better guess. They are largely scientific and technical, rarely 
on the tongue in conversation. They are such as : 

Amphibious, anodyne, blaspheme, catarrh, cynosure, decagon, dilem- 
ma, doxology, electric, exegesis, heliocentric, heterodox, hyperbole, 
isosceles, labyrinth, lexicon, mechanic, metamorphosis, monosyllable, 
necrology, oxygen, phrenology, rhetoric, squirrel, surgeon, synonym, 
telegraph, thermometer, trophy, tyrant, and zoology. 

From the Hebrew, we have such words as : 

Amen, cabal, cherub, hallelujah, hosannah, Jehovah, jubilee, manna, 
sabbath, Satan, seraph, and shibboleth. 

The English race has had intercourse, commercial, literary, 
or other, with the peoples of all lands. From most of these 

History of the English Language. 113 

it has brought home words which it has naturalized and 
made good English. 

From the Italian, we have imported such words as : 

Alarm, balcony, bankrupt, canto, citadel, concert, contraband, 
cupola, duet, gondola, guitar, influenza, lava, malaria, motto, mus- 
tache, opera, piano, pistol, portico, quota, regatta, sonnet, soprano, 
studio, trio, vista, and volcano. 

From the Spanish, such words as : 

Armada, bravado, buffalo, cargo, cigar, cork, embargo, indigo, 
merino, mulatto, negro, renegade, sherry, tornado, and vanilla. 

From the Portuguese, such as : 

Caste, cocoa-nut, commodore, lasso, molasses, palaver, and tank. 

From the Dutch, such as : 

Aloof, bluff, boor, brandy, bumpkin, elope, fop, gas, hustle, knapsack, 
landscape, loiter, luff, measles, ogle, reef, skates, skipper, sloop, wagon, 
yacht, and yawl. 

From the German, such as : 

Dutch, feldspar, loafer, meerschaum, nickel, plunder, poodle, quartz, 
swindler, trull, and zinc. 

From the Slavonic, such as : 
Calash, czar, knout, polka, sable, slave, and steppe. 

From the J'( t-sian, such as : 

Bazaar, caravan, check, checkers. <-h<>s<. ghoul, hazard, horde, jar, 
lemon, lilac, mummy, orange, rice, sash, shawl, and veranda. 

From the Hindu, such as : 

Banyan, calico, chintz, jungle, pagoda, shampoo, sugar, and toddy. 

114 Word-Building. 

From the Turkish, such as : 
Bey, janissary, ottoman, and tulip. 

From the Malay, such as : 

Bamboo, bantam, gong, gutta-percha, mango, rattan, and sago. 

From the Polynesian, such as : 
Boomerang, kangaroo, taboo, and tattoo. 

From the Chinese, such as : 

China, junk, nankeen, serge, silk, tea, and typhoon. 

From the Arabic, such as : 

Alcohol, algebra, alkali, candy, chemistry, cipher, cotton, crimson, 
elixir, gazelle, magazine, nadir, sofa, tariff, zenith, and zero. 

From the North American Indian, such as : 
Hominy, moose, raccoon, skunk, squaw, tomahawk, and wigwam. 

From the West Indian, such as : 

Buccaneer, cannibal, canoe, hammock, maize, potato, and tobacco. 

But, after all, the great component elements of English 
are the Anglo-Saxon and the Latin the Latin mostly that 
of the Third and Fourth Periods, of course. 

It is from the Anglo-Saxon that the English derives all the 
grammar it has. The grammatical forms of the English 
noun, pronoun, and verb are those not sloughed off during 
the centuries immediately succeeding the Norman Conquest. 
Some, like the 8 for the plural and for the possessive singular 
of nouns, had a footing in the Anglo-Saxon, and have been 
universalized by the influence of the Norman-French. But 
the Norman-French can hardly be said to have introduced 
anything new into our grammar. 




History of Jhe English Language. 115 

1. Anglo-Saxon. 

(Of the First Period. 

Of the Second Period. 
2 ' Lat 1 Of the Third Period. 

Of the Fourth Period. 

3. Greek. 

4. Indo-European. 

i Of the First Period. 

5. Celtic - Of the Second Period. 

x ( Of the Third Period. 

6. Scandinavian. . (Of the First Period. 

{ Of the Second Period. 

1. Hebrew. 

the Italian 9 the Spanish, tin- 

Portuguese (these three Latin in 
origin), the Dutch, the Germ tut. 

8. ?4ft other Lan- 
guages as 

liic Slavonic, the Persian, the 
Hindu, the Turkish, the $T- 

the Polynesian, the 

the Arabic, the North 
American Indian, and the 



The Norman words. Lathi as we have seen, came iuto 
English (1) to supply the demands of the blended peoples 
for terms to denote things and express thoughts which the 
Saxons never had, and so had no words to denote. They 

116 !!"// 

came (2) to fill the gap caused by the loss of words which tin- 
Anglo-Saxons before the Conquest did have. 'They came (3) 
as contestants for the places already filled by the Anglo- 
Saxon. In this contest the Latin (a) sometimes dislodged 
the Anglo-Saxon. Labor and (oil do duty now instead of 
swi/t c(i// % and mice has supplanted stefen. Often in the 
struggle the Latin (b) divided the ground with the Anglo- 
Saxon. Color exists side by side with ///// or lnu\ and juy 
with tliss. But oftener, perhaps, the Anglo-Saxon (c) held 
their positions, and the Latin words never secured the cov- 
eted footing in the language. 

Latin words have come in, in great numbers, since, to 
satisfy the demands of our ever-increasing knowledge and 
higher development. For little attempt has been made to 
meet these insatiable requirements by any effort to com- 
pound into new vocables the old Anglo-Saxon material pre- 

These, too, have entered into contest with the Anglo- 
Saxon for the places occupied by them. 

We may say that the pronouns ; the numerals ; the irreg- 
ular verbs (except strive), including the auxiliaries ; the 
prepositions and the conjunctions (excepting save, exec/if, 
concerning, and because, and a few others) are An ( irlo-Sa.\on. 
A slight percentage of the other words are Indo-European ; 
some are Celtic, some Scandinavian, some Greek, some He- 
brew, and some have been adopted from the peoples with 
whom the Knirlish have h,-id intercourse. 

The remainder are Anglo-Saxon and Latin. It is of this 
remainder, the bulk of the vocabulary, more than ninety 
per cent, of it, that we wish now to speak. And we should 
speak more plainly if we could speak specifically, if we could 
throw these words into classes and look at them there. This 

History of the English Language. 117 

we cannot o!<> In- re, but we can give the results reached by us 
in work of this kind done elsewhere results which not 
unfaithfully picture the functions of the Anglo-Saxon and of 
the Latin in the English vocabulary. 

What Words Belong to the Anglo-Saxon. The names of 
such things (1) in the animal and vegetable worlds as were 
native to the island, and generally known before the Norman 
Conquest ; the names (2) of the outward parts of the animal 
body, and of those internal organs that easily reveal their 
presence ; (3) of common buildings and their necessary 
] >arts ; (4) of the household equipment that families living 
in such houses must have ; (5) of such farm implements as a 
people rude in arts and agriculture could make and use ; (6) 
of occupations mainly manual ; (7) of the essential divisions 
of time ; (8) the verbs that express many of the customary 
acts in the material world and operations in the mental ; and 
(9) adjectives that denote obvious sensible qualities, and the 
obtrusive attributes of the intellect, of the emotional nature, 
and of character ; these are mainly Anglo-Saxon. 

What Words Belong to the Latin. But to name (1) things 
in the animal and vegetable kingdoms seen by travel; (2) to 
denote buildings higher and more complex than the common 
dwelling, and to mark those parts of them and those belong- 
ings to them unfamiliar to the Anglo-Saxons, but needful, 
we should think, even for comfort ; (3) to indicate those 
parts of the body and their functions which science has dis- 
closed ; to denote (4) the longer or the more minute divisions 
of time, and the occupations that indicate higher culture ; 
and (5), generally, to mark the less ordinary physical acts, 
requiring, many of them, plan and combination, and to de- 
note the less obvious objects and qualities of objects in the 
outward world ; to do these things we draw largely upon 


the Latin element of the laniruaire. And when we turn to 
the words in Knirlish expressive (<J) of civil and social organ- 
ization, or used (7) to denote intellectual acts, states. quali- 
ties, powers, possessions, products, or required (8) to express 
the higher feelings and the traits of character, or needed (i) 
to denote classes and general notions, we find the contract 
between the Anglo-Saxon and the Latin in English most 
striking. It is in words expressive of these things that the 
Anglo-Saxon element is painfully lacking. 


The percentage* of the AHg?o-Sft.roit and the I;<ifin< in 
Ent/fis/t, used by writers and public speakers depend upon 
the man, upon his subject, and upon the culture of those 
addressed. But they depend in the showing still more largely 
upon the mcf/tod of counting. If every word is counted 
every time it is used, the result reached will be one thing ; if 
each word is counted but once, no matter how many times it 
is used, the result reached will be quite another tiling. The 
words oftenest employed, not alone in ordinary conversa- 
tion but for literary purposes as well, are the irregular verbs 
(especially the auxiliary), the pronouns, the articles, the prep- 
ositions, and the conjunctions. 'These with scarcely an ex- 
ception are An.irlo-Saxnn. So that the trords <-<>iisf itf/i/ 
appearing. r<'tfjt/H'firin</, on the ymr/rs of /ifrrfftiirr and 
in j>itl>li< (tisrottrsi; as well as in colloquial speech, <u-<- 
almost exclusively .ltt<//o-S<t.rott. As was said, then, the 
method of counting has much to do with the exhihit made. 

Marsh's Examination. Our countryman, the eminent 

History of the Etnjlixh L 

George P. Marsh, at one time made several excerpts from 
many British and American writers. He counted each 
trord every time it was found, and gave us the results in 
tables which show that the Anglo-Saxon words used by these 
men ranged from 70 to 95 per cent, of all the words em- 
ployed by them. We give these figures without judgment as 
to whether the extracts made were ample in number and in 
length to justify the claim that they fairly represent the levy 
which these men in their complete works made upon the 

Our Own Examination. It came in our way, some years 
since, to make a far more extended examination of the words 
eminent writers and speakers choose. The different words of 
one American, Rufus Choate, found in his complete works, 
were brought together and arranged alphabetically. Twenty 
other distinguished men ten British and ten American 
were chosen. From each of these a speech, an argument at 
the bar, an oration, or some chapters of a book were taken, 
and the words of each were alphabetically placed. No 
word in any one of the twenty-one lists thus formed trtts 
counted more than once, unless the several forms of it 
were from distinct roots ; only one degree of an adjective or 
an adverb ; only one of the six or seven possible forms of 
any verb ; only one case of any noun or pronoun. Let 
this hi- borne in mind ; it is the one point of difference, 
to be emphasized here, between our work and that of Mr. 

After the classification of the words, a count was made, 
and the percentages were reached. Our tables show that 
twenty-one representative authors in representative efforts 
use a per cent, of Latin words varying from 56 to 72, and 
of Latin and Greek together from 03^ to 75 T V> over against 

180 Word-Building. 

a per cent, of Anglo-Saxon ranging only from 23 r % to 33^. 
This is the showing if each word is counted but once. 

The general belief (1) that for ordinary communication we 
make the heaviest drafts upon the Anglo-Saxon ; (2) that 
the words coming most frequently to the tongue and often- 
est repeated on the page are Anglo-Saxon; and ('.}) that, 
while on social or business topics we can construct whole 
paragraphs without a word of Latin, it is all but impossible 
to frame a sentence without the Anglo-Saxon ; this belief 
the figures of the comparison do not disturb. And this is 
much to confess; for it is an acknowledgment that our 
dependence upon the Anglo-Saxon is absolute, so far as it 
extends. Nor do these figures (4) give the number of the 
Anglo-Saxon and of the Latin words in our vocabulary, or 
settle their ratio to each other, or (5) decide the question 
whether, had our ancestors of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries imitated the ancient Greeks or the modern Ger- 
mans, and formed new words by compounding native mate- 
rial, we might not now be using a vocabulary all of a piece, 
and yet ample for our utmost needs. 

Our Need of Both Anglo-Saxon and Latin. But from the 
exhibit made by the comparison above we think we are 
warranted in claiming that we cannot do without the Latin 
words in our English ; that, when we rise above the com- 
monplace in matter and in manner, we find such words 
indispensable. We say indispensable; for, while the ferry- 
boat that takes us daily to our place of business is indis- 
pensable, the transatlantic steamer that bears us to Europe is 
not less so, even though we go but once. 

It would seem that these two classes of words, mingling 
freely in the current of every English sentence, have dwelt 
BO long and pleasantly together, that we should cease to call 

History of the English I,(unjnage. 121 

either class foreign, alien. Often we cannot, without close 
scrutiny, tell which words are Latin and which are Anglo- 
Saxon. By some ear-marks, perhaps, hut certainly not by 
their length, hy their strangeness, or by his inability to handle 
them deftly, would one of but average culture suspect that 
the following nouns, adjectives, and verbs belong to the 
Latin : 

Age, art, case, cent, cost, fact, form, ink, line, mile, pain, pair, part, 
pen, piece, price, rule, sound, ton, tone, and vail; apt, clear, cross, 
crude, firm, grand, large, mere, nice, pale, plain, poor, pure, rare, real, 
rich, round, safe, scarce, siire, vain, and vast; add, aid, aim, boil, close, 
cook, cure, fail, fix, fry, mix, move, pay, save, serve, try, turn, and 

These, and hundreds of other short Latin words, as well 
understood as the simplest Anglo-Saxon, are mostly without 
Saxon equivalents. But even those with Saxon duplicates 
are necessary ; they give to our speech a rich synonymy that 
aids us in making and in expressing the finer distinctions in 

The Latin are often (1) the most forcible words in English. 
What Anglo-Saxon verb of teaching matches in vigor incul- 
cate to drive in with the heel ? What other adjective 
denoting health has the strength of robust oaken ? Such 
words, unfortunately, are pregnant with meaning mainly 
to the etymologist. In this they differ from what the vigor- 
ous, self-explaining Anglo-Saxon words would have been had 
that element been fostered. They give (2) conciseness to ex- 
pression ; like canals across isthmuses they shorten the route 
witness mutual, reanimate, circumlocution. Of tenor than 
the Anglo-Saxon they are (3) metaphorical, and flash upon 
the thought a poetic light ; as, dilapidated, applied to for- 
tune or dress ; ruined, to character ; luminous, to expression. 

They impart (4) grace and smoothness to style are the mnxi- 
mL Mclodinux, and mclUjluunx words of the language.. Thev 
irive (5) pomp and stateliness to discourse, and make possible 
the grand manner of Sir Thomas Browne, of Milton, and of 
De Quincey. A vocabulary like ours, duly compounded of 
the Teutonic and the Romance, has a manifoldness and an 
affluence of wealth that adapt it to every kind of writing, 
and are wonderfully stimulative of it. And so while the 
literatures in other languages excel, each in some single 
department, ours is confessedly eminent in all. 

While it is difficult to exaggerate the work and the worth 
of the Anglo-Saxon in English, we deprecate what has been 
called the "violent reaction" that has set in, in favor of it 
a reaction which, carried to the extreme, would practically 
disinherit us of vast verbal possessions. But, without any 
wish or effort to champion the much decried Latin element, 
we may safely say that this reaction cannot be carried to the 

We are glad to find the wise Alexander Bain breaking out, 
on the opening page of his work, On Teaching /-Jnt/tixh, into, 
" To write continuously in anything like pure Saxon is plainly 
impossible. Moreover, none of our standard English authors, 
whether in prose or in poetry, have thought it a merit to be 
studiously Saxon in their vocabulary." 

The words chosen should be appropriate to the topic, and 
level to the comprehension of those addressed. This much 
we may properly insist upon ; but it would be unwise to 
encourage our pupils to seek for such words in the Anglo- 
Saxon element alone. 

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